Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]
(马斯洛(Maslow))

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人类需求的五个层次。 Maslow的Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]解析。 (‘54)

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Abraham Maslow生平

Abraham马斯洛(Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论] Abraham Maslow于1908年4月1日出生于纽约的布鲁克林, 是俄国犹太移民的孩子,他是家庭里七个孩子中最大的一个。 尽管他的父母从未受过教育,但坚持让他们的孩子追求学业上的成功。 因此,毫不奇怪,童年时期的Maslow养成了孤僻的性格,终日把自己藏匿在书的世界里。

起初,为了满足父母亲的心愿,Maslow进入了纽约市立学院(CCNY),在那里学习法律。 后来,他不顾父母亲反对,与他的表妹Bertha Goodman结婚, 并育有两个女儿。

婚后,他们搬到了威斯康星州,以便Maslow能够在威斯康星大学继续深造。 在那里,Maslow对心理学产生了浓厚的兴趣,并且在学业上取得了突飞猛进的提高。 与此同时, Maslow还与以研究罗猴和依恋行为知名的Harry Harlow一起从事研究。

Maslow在威斯康星大学相继取得了文学学士 (1930年)、文学硕士 (1931年)和哲学博士 (1934年)学位。 毕业一年以后,Maslow重返纽约,供职于哥伦比亚大学,与E. L. Thorndike工作在一起。也正是从那时开始,他的兴趣开始移向人类性特征研究。

后来,Maslow开始在布鲁克林学院全职工作。 这段时间,他结识了许多移居美国的顶尖欧洲心理学家, 包括Alfred Adler、Erich Fromm,以及Gestalt[格式塔理论]和弗洛伊德学说的代表人物。

从1951年开始,Maslow受聘为Brandeis大学心理学系主任,长达10年之久。在那里,他遇到了著名的精神病学家、人本主义心理学的先驱Kurt Goldstein 跟从Goldstein,Maslow受到了自我实现理念的启发,并从此走上了独立理论研究的道路。 与此同时,他开始了对人本主义心理学的研究,事实上,他在这一领域的研究成果,远比他试图建立的个人理论体系要重要得多。 Maslow后来又移居加利福尼亚州,在半退休的状态下,在那里度过了余生。 1970年6月8日,他因心脏病发作去世。


需求层次理论模型


Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论] 需求层次 - 生理需求

对空气、水、食物以及睡眠等需求都是人的最基本的生理需求。 当这些需求没有得到满足的时候,人就会感到不适、苦闷、愤怒,乃至病痛,等等。 这些感觉刺激人们尽可能寻找满足需求之法,减轻痛苦,建立自我平衡。 一旦生理需求得到满足,痛苦之感消除,人就会思考其他的需求。


需求层次 - 安全需求

这类需求反映的是当人处在动乱的世界中,对实现稳定、和谐的一种渴求, 主要是一种心理上的需求。 每个人都需要家的安全感, 如果一个家庭被粗鲁暴戾的丈夫搞得鸡犬不宁,换句话说,妻子的安全感得不到满足,那么她就不可能去追求更高层次的需要。 因为,这时她唯一关心的就是她的安全。 对于担惊受怕的妻子来说,爱以及归属等更高层次需求,是不可想象的。 在我们的社会当中,许多人呼吁法律和秩序,就是因为他们感受不到足够的安全,哪怕是在自己屋舍外面散散步。


需求层次 - 爱和归属需求

此类需求处于人类需求长梯上的更高层次。 每个人都有归属于某一组织的渴望, 俱乐部、工作团队、宗教组织、家庭、朋友圈子,等等。 我们渴望他人的爱(非性爱),渴望被他人接受。 就像表演艺术家感激观众们的热情掌声, 我们需要自己对他人来说是有用的。 比较: Hawthorne Effect[霍索恩效应]


需求层次 - 自尊需求

在人的身上存在两种尊重需求, 一种是自尊,即通过掌握某项技能、完成某项工作任务来实现自我价值的一种个人感觉。 另一种是他尊,即来自他人对自己的认可和尊重。 这看似与归属需求类似,但是,渴望被赞美的需求还与对名声、权力、地位的渴望联系在一起。


需求层次 - 自我实现需求

这是一种极度地渴求“为所欲为,心想事成”。 当人拥有一切可以得到或运用的资源的时候,他就能够最大化自己的潜能, 就能够探索知识、追求和平、改造精神世界、实现自我,与神同在。
 

Maslow的需求层次理论完型于1943年至1945年间,最终随着他的书作《动机与人格》(Motivation and Personality)在1954年正式发表。 此时,其需求层次模型还只有五个层次。 到了1968年,他发表了他最为著名的一本著作《人格的潜力与成熟》(Toward a Psychology of Being。在这本书中,更多的需求层次被添加进来。


需求层次模型的局限。 缺点

应该注意不能刻板地遵循这个需求层次:

  • 在现实中,有些人不会逐一穿越每一个层次。 这些需求层次在结构化方面还显得有所欠缺。 (Graves)
  • 不同文化背景的人,在不同的情形之下,会有不同的需求,需求层次也显然不同。 (HofstedeEarly)
  • 其他学者认为,在Maslow的需求层次之外,还有其他一些需求也非常明显、非常重要。 参见McClelland的需求理论,他将人的需求归结为成功、从属、权力。
  • 1968年, Maslow本人亦在他的书作《人格的潜力与成熟》中为需求层次模型添加了新的需求层次。

尽管上面这些原因,最初的五层次需求理论已广为社会大众所接受。


参考书: Abraham Maslow - Toward a Psychology of Being [中译本《人格的潜力与成熟》,河北教育音像出版社,2004] -


需求层次理论论坛
  Fundamental Flaw In Maslow's Pyramid
As convincing as Maslow looks at first sight, there is a fundamental error in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. His pyramid is driven by self-actualization, i.e. egocentrism. But MEANING matters more.
"The man who has a why to live bears almos...
     
 
  Is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Still Valid Today?
Yes, Maslow's need hierarchy is still valid today and even handy and practicable. Most humans have the same basic concept of needs.
One can amend or improve it with knowledge or exposure to experiences. But still we pass through the same hierarc...
     
 
  List of Criticisms on Maslow's Pyramid of Needs
Besides the criticisms already mentioned in the summary:
1. In reality, people don't necessarily go through these levels in that order.
2. Different people with different cultural backgrounds and in different situations may have different h...
     
 
  Limitations to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
One of the limitations to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs is that it does not take into account the unsatisfied needs.
In addition, what about the must-haves; that, in my opinion, are prior to needs?...
     
 
  Self-fulfilment Prophecy
In my organization, I have found that the perception of people is a self-fulfilling prophecy. Most of them are around the physiological needs.
When I confronted them with various programs and initiatives to self actualize, only small numbers of ...
     
 
  Applying Hierarchy of Needs to Business
Clearly, an individual at the self-esteem and self-actualization levels would be a preferred employee.
The problem stems from the fact that most organizations do not create the culturally conducive environment for people to reach Maslow's hig...
     
 
  Is Self Actualization Equal to Nirvana?
Sometimes ago I attended a talk on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and the speaker stressed that the level of self-actualization equates to to 'nirvana' in Buddhist teaching - and thus very few people will reach this level. Can you elaborate on this?...
     
 
  Does Anyone Know That Maslow Reviewed Self-Actualization?
While Maslow originally meant self-actualization as a peak of personal needs, in fact before he died Maslow stated that actually paramount for such a person is the fact he can devote his life for the benefit of others, something transcendental, somet...
     
 
  Maslow and Interests Outside of Work
I would assume that managers want (prefer) people to be motivated at the self esteem and self actualization levels. If so, it could be said that individuals that have interests outside of work are having these needs met elsewhere. They therefore do n...
     
 
  Employee Needs Important for Organizations
The theory of needs is very essential in an organization. Employees whose psychological, safety needs, love and belongingness needs are met make better employees, which in the long run is essential for an organization's growth....
     
 
  How to Apply the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs to a Business
I would like to know how to apply the Maslow hierarchy of needs to a business (services) with matrix structure?...
     
 
  Maslow and Buyer Behaviour
How does Maslows Theory influences Buyer Behaviour?...
     
 
  Which Level of Need?
Let's call him Harry, he is very assertive. He will work for money and can change jobs for more money. Harry is hardworking and he expects the company also to work for him. He feels no qualms about working a 60-hour week if the money is there. So whi...
     
 
  Maslow's Model Related with Marketing
Maslow has really provided a basic model for which every individual is striving hard to achieve. The bottom ladder of the model is the prime requirement of every consumer or customer this ladder only suggest that we have one thing in common and this ...
     
 
  Hierarchy of Needs during Recession
During a recession, does the hierarchy of needs or preferences change?...
     
 
  Marketing Interpretation of Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's needs hierarchy can be re-interpreted in consumer needs / value terms to read from bottom to top: Functional, Experiential, Relational, Social and Psychological....
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Hierarchy of Needs 高级帐户
 

Drivers and Levers of Employees

In their 2002 book "Driven: How Human Nature Shapes our Choices", Paul R. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria mention 4 drives underlying everything we do:
...
Usage (application)Improving Employee Motivation
 
 
 

Differences Between Maslow's Hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG Theory

The 4 main differences between the theories by Maslow and Alderfer are that ERG Theory:
1. Recognizes that multiple needs can be present at the s...
Usage (application)Understanding Human Needs, Teaching
 
 
 

Promotion-focused versus Prevention-focused Employees

An interesting way to look at the needs of employees or coachees for motivation purposes is described by Heidi Grant Halverson and E. Tory Higgins in ...
Usage (application)Employee Needs and Motivation
 
 
 

Alternate Classifications of Human Needs (Employees, Consumers)

One of possible ways to classify human (employee, consumer) needs is to break them down into:
- Biogenic Needs (essential, inherent certain eleme...
Usage (application)Motivation, Marketing, Human Needs
 
 
 

Family-Work Conflicts (FWC) and Daily Job Performance

FAMILY ROLES and WORK are two factors influencing each other: - Work can interfere with family roles; this is called a Work-Family Conflict (WFC).
...
Usage (application)Family-work conflicts, Coaching, Mentoring, Job Performance
 
 
 

Internal and External Motivators

Just a quick tip: Thinking on ways to motivate an employee / your workforce? You should understand that Maslow's Pyramid focuses on internal motiva...
Usage (application)2 Types of Motivators....
 
 
 

Differences in Organizational Commitment Between Paid Workers and Volunteers

Paid and unpaid workers in hybrid organizations
Although financial considerations are an important reason to work for a certain organization, the...
Usage (application)Organizational Commitment, Employee Motivation, Non-profit Organizations
 
 

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比较: Theory of Needs[需求理论]  |  Spiral Dynamics[螺旋动力学]  |  Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]  |  Two Factor Theory[二因素理论]  |  Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论]  |  Hawthorne Effect[霍索恩效应]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Customer Satisfaction Model[顾客满意度模型]  |  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Coaching[教练]  |  Mentoring[启导]


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