Marketing Mix[营销组合]
(4Ps)

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对市场做出最佳反应。 E. Jerome McCarthy的Marketing Mix[营销组合]解析。

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什么是营销组合? 释义

营销组合模型(也称作4P模型)是市场营销人员用于制定市场战略的一个有效工具。 营销经理在运用这一模型时,将4个市场变量(亦有5种、7种之说)按照最佳方式组合起来,从而对目标市场做出最佳反映。 营销组合的市场变量是可控的,认识这一点非常重要。 营销组合可以根据目标群体的需求变化以及市场环境的变化适时做出调整。


产品(Product

历史上,对于产品的传统认识是: 好酒不怕巷子深,好产品必有市场和顾客。 然而,在当今竞争白热化的市场上,再没有坏产品,都是好产品在相互竞争。 与此同时,很多法律也赋予了消费者无偿退回劣质品的权利。 所以现在的问题就变成了: 公司所生产的产品是不是顾客所需要的。 因此,公司必须根据顾客需求,准确定义自己的产品或服务。 功能、 质量、 外观、 包装、 品牌、 服务、 支持、 保证。
价格(Price 意欲购买公司产品或服务的顾客究竟愿意付出多大代价? 这里,我们就要用到价格战略——对此,决不能等闲视之! 就算你的产品或服务价格很低,你仍然要意识到这是一个必须认真思考的决定,这是你价格战略的一部分。 尽管价格竞争的历史几乎与人类的历史同样久远,但是,消费者至今仍然对价格折扣、特价优惠非常敏感。 价格也有无理性的一面, 例如,认为贵的就是好的。 对于大部分公司来说,把价格战作为一项长期战略决不是一个明知的做法。 定价、 折扣、 资金筹措、 融资租赁、 限量供应。
地点(Place 在准确的地点、准确的时间,并以准确度数量提供产品或服务。 当今商业环境的变化亦对“地点”产生了影响。 我们可以想一想互联网和移动电话。 方位、 物流、 渠道成员、 渠道动机、 市场覆盖、 服务水准、 互联网、 移动电话。
促销(Promotion 如何向目标顾客传递公司及公司产品的信息? 为此,市场商战中的十八般武器一样都不能少——广告、销售、销售促进、Direct Marketing[直销]、公关,等等。 当其他3P(产品、价格、地点)正在今日商战中逐渐失去其意义,促销(Promtion)却愈加受到重视。 广告、 公关、 消息、 直销、 销售、 媒介、 预算。

营销组合的作用不仅仅是迎合消费者需要,也是为了最大化组织绩效。 已经有很多人对4P营销组合进行了各种不同的扩展, 其中,最为突出的是“人员”(People Personnel)。 此外,Booms和Bitner针对服务导向型公司提出了7P营销组合。


参考书: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy: Understanding the CEO's Agenda..[中译本《大行销时代》,台湾天下杂志,2004] -

参考书: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management [中译本《战略市场管理》,中国人民大学出版社,2005] -


营销组合论坛
  4PS重命名:SIVA模型
Chekitan S. Dev和Don E. Schultz在2005年1、2月刊的《市场管理》(第14卷)上发文,提出了一个顾客导向的4PS的变形——SIVA模型,即:
Product(产品)> Solution(方案),
Promotion(促进) > Info...
     
 
  有关市场营销的名谚
你知道哪些有关市场营销的脍炙人口的、含义深刻或者轻松活泼的谚语或名言吗?如果你知道,把它贴在这里与大家一起分享。别忘了注上出处或作者。好,我来开个头。
“我知道我的广...
     
 
  Necessary Skills of Marketers
According to Kotler (1972), effective marketing consists of analysing, planning, organising and controlling marketing efforts:
  • ANALYSIS: marketers have to be good at
    - Market analysis to identify the characteristics and demands of the...
     
 
  New Marketing Mix Concept: SAVE
We are familiar with the concept of 4P of marketing, Product, Place, Price and Promotion.
We are finding that these are no longer the same and it's time to replace them by a new marketing mix concept: SAVE:
- SOLUTION replacing Product: Do...
     
 
  Add a Living Element to the Marketing Mix
Ask any MBA student on the fundamentals of marketing and he will tell you about the 4Ps, Product, Price, Place and Promotion. As you know it was expanded to 7Ps, 11 Ps and so on an endless list! But for s...
     
 
  How the Marketing Mix Influences Operations
Can anyone explain the relevance of the marketing plan to operations management in an organization with an example?...
     
 
  What are the Implications for 4Ps if the Exchange Rate Changes
What are the implications for international marketing in case the exchange rates change?
How do changes in exchange rate affect Product?
How do changes in exchange rate affect Price?
How do changes in exchange rate affect Promotion?
     
 
  Marketing Mix Modelling
Hi all... What statistical techniques are used in marketing mix modelling?
How are they used? Please share your best practices and worst nightmares :-) Thanks......
     
 
  What is the 5P's Marketing Mix?
I want to know the following about the 5P model:
Where exactly does it fit in marketing and marketing research? Thank you....
     
 
  4P Implementation Steps. Order of Implementing the 4Ps?
I would like to know what steps one takes in a 4P implementation. Is there any particular order? Please inform me....
     
 
  4th P includes Image and Reputation
Note that image and/or reputation are part of the P of Promotion....
     
 
  Impact of Marketing Plan on Employees?
Does a marketing plan have any impact upon the employees? Which?...
     
 
  Marketing Mix P's for Online Companies
I have a question, how will you prioritize the p's for an online company like for amazon.com?...
     
 
  Marketing Mix in Recession
In view of the recession, how have the marketers adjusted their marketing strategies in terms of the 4P's in marketing in order to cater for the needs of the bottom of the pyramid consumers?...
     
 
  What About This Period
In the current situation of recession I think even the top marketing methods are not working. These days the customer looks at the mandatory requirements rather than going in to schemes and advertisements. I am sure almost none of the offers are work...
     
 
  Marketing Mix Alternatives
Are there any credible alternatives to the marketing mix?...
     
 
  Marketing Mix for Business Planning
Define the service, develop a benefit list, focus on what makes the business different from the competition, develop the positioning of the service provided, calculate financial benefits for the advantages and develop them as solutions to the custome...
     
 
  Add Image to Marketing Mix: 4P + I
The four P`s needs an additional I for Image. This is especially relevant for high-involvement products....
     
 
  Examples of Marketing Mix
I would like to see an example of the 4 ps of marketing with an example of air condition?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 营销组合 高级帐户
  Promotion Mix | Marketing Communications Mix
The term Promotion Mix (PM), also called Marketing Communications Mix, must not be confused with the Marketing Mix (4 Ps). In fact, the Promotion Mix breaks down one of the 4 Ps: Promotion.
...
     
 
  Before using the Marketing Mix
Most marketers emphasize the marketing mix. In my opinion, The most important part of the marketing plan is knowing what are the customer requirements. Firstly, you must drill down to your target's behavior before analyzing the appropriate ma...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Marketing Mix | The 4Ps 高级帐户
 

A Marketing Mix that Recognizes the Power of the Customer

Chekitan S. Dev and Don E. Schultz - like Lauterborn's 4C's -argue that today the customer has the power and can vote with his or her purse, wa...
Usage (application)Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
 
 
 

How to Determine the Right PRICING?

One of the 4 P's is Pricing. To help managers find the right price for a product/service, Kim and Mauborgne have developed a tool called the Price ...
Usage (application)Steps to Strategic Pricing
 
 
 

The Most Complete Marketing Mix

The 'Total Marketing Mix' includes 4Ps, 4Cs,4As and 4Os:
4Ps: Product, Price, Promotion and Place
4Cs: Customer needs, Cost to user, ...
Usage (application)Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
 
 
 

The Renewed 4P Marketing Mix

Arussy suggests in his article "Congratulations, You Are at Par: The New Four P's" that the traditional 4P's are no longer applicable and shoul...
Usage (application)Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
 
 
 

Understanding your Customer's Needs

In order to transform your customers experience and to better understand your customers needs, it is helpful to construct a hypothetical cons...
Usage (application)Customer Targeting and Strategy
 
 
 

Are the variables really controllable?

A key assumption of the 4PS model is that the 4 variables are controllable and can be 'mixed' by the marketer into an optimal recipe. In realit...
Usage (application)Marketing Strategy
 
 
 

Marketing Mix from the Customer Perspective

In contrast to the 4P's Marketing Mix by McCarthy, Robert Lauterborn suggests a 4C's Marketing Mix model in order to consider a marketing strategy fro...
Usage (application)Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
 
 
 

The Role of the 4P's in an Online Enviroment

Although the 4P's are not the critical factors in an online environment, they are still more or less important and necessary elements of the total web...
Usage (application)E-Marketing, Strategy
 
 
 

The Goals of Marketing

No matter your words combination, according to marketing consultant Don Debelak (  
 
 

Going Global: Adaptation of Marketing Mix Components

As we all know, companies that conduct business internationally are often adapting their products to the markets served. Operating in international ma...
Usage (application)Marketing Strategy, Global Marketing, International Marketing, Marketing Mix, 4Ps
 
 
 

Don't Forget Internal Marketing

Besides external marketing, dealing with the image, look and view how customers see or define your organization, internal marketing of y...
Usage (application)Involving your Employees, Internal Marketing Best Practices
 
 

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比较: Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合] (7Ps)  |  4S Web Marketing Mix[4S网络营销组合]  |  3C's  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]  |  Competitive Advantage framework[竞争优势架构]  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  Disruptive Innovation[颠覆性创新]  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]


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