Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]
(Lewin)

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分析变革因素: 驱动力与制约力。 Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]及力场分析图解析。 Kurt Lewin。

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Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin是一位美国社会心理学家, 他对群体动力学以及行动研究法作出了杰出贡献,被认为是现代心理学的奠基人之一。 然而,Lewin最著名之处还是他的力场分析法以及力场分析图。


Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]图LewinLewin的组织观

根据Lewin的研究,任何事物都处在一对相反作用力之下,且处于平衡状态。 其中推动事物发生变革的力量是: 驱动力。 试图保持原状的力量是: 制约力。 Lewin试组织为一动态系统(而非静止), 这一系统处同样处在二力作用的动态平衡之中。 为了发生变革,驱动力必须超过制约力,从而打破平衡。 比较: Catastrophe Theory[突变理论]


力场分析图

力场分析图是建立在这些作用力与反作用力基础上的一个图表分析模型。 这些力量包括: 组织成员、行为习惯、组织习俗及态度等。 力场分析图适用于各个不同层次的变革力量分析, 如个人、项目、组织、网络,等等,能够帮助识别出促进或阻碍变革的各项力量。 力场分析图帮助用户直观展现既定议题下的“力量之争”。 通常,拟定的变革计划总是位于力场图的最上方(参见图示)。 其下,图分两栏。 各驱动力位于左栏,制约力则位于右栏。 各力量作用方向均指向中间栏线。 其中,箭头较长则意味着作用力也较强。 力场图要表达的意思就是,同一事物遭受所有不同力量的作用,并发生相应变化。


力场分析法的应用

  • 对某一事件活动的力量平衡情况进行调查。
  • 对某一事件活动所涉及的最为重要的利益相关者进行辨别。
  • 辨识盟友与对手
  • 阐明如何影响每一个目标群体。

力场分析法的步骤 流程

  1. 描述当前状态。
  2. 描述期望状态。
  3. 辨认如果不采取任何行动的后果。
  4. 列出朝向期望状态发展的所有驱动力。
  5. 列出朝向期望状态发展的所有制约力。
  6. 对所有力量进行逐一讨论与研究: 它们是否真实有效? 它们能否被改变? 它们中的哪一些又是最为关键的?
  7. 用1-10的数字对每一力量的强度进行判分,其中1代表力量最弱,10代表力量最强。
  8. 在图表上按比例标出力量箭头, 其中驱动力位于左侧, 制约力位于右侧。
  9. 通过力量分析,对变革的可能及其过程进行判断。
  10. 分析讨论如果减弱制约力或加强驱动力,对变革又会产生怎样的影响。
  11. 需要注意的是,当改变某一驱动力或制约力的时候,有可能对其他力量产生关联影响,甚至于产生新的力量。

力场分析法论坛
  Three Strategic Frameworks (Mulcaster)
Mulcaster (2008) developed 3 strategic frameworks that can be useful both in decision making and in strategy. All three frameworks will be briefly explained below:
1. OPPOSING FORCES APPROACH: This is an approach in which the advantages and disa...
     
 
  The Human Factor in Force Field Analysis
The FFA is a great tool in analysing change. In a practical sense, the human factor is the most controversial force in either driving change or restraining change.
We are talking about apathy, ignorance, power, self interests, and antagonism amo...
     
 
  Using Force Field Analysis for Gender Analysis
Force field analysis is an appropriate tool for gender analysis to identify the deprived class womens short comings, and to show direction how to reduce restraining forces and increase driving forces for more effective gender relationships....
     
 
  Force Field Analysis Helps to Consider Barriers Before Embarking Change
Change is hard. Force field analysis helps to summarize the barriers. Thus, all phases must be understood before embarking organisational change. The aspects of the future state need to be considered before moving towards the transition. The need ...
     
 
  Dynamism is the Interface to Change Issues
Change is must for all entities. It is part of every movement, nothing stays standing on the same start point. It is a law of life. So, dynamism is the interface sticked to all change issues. If we see the organization as a complex whole, any changes...
     
 
  Identifying Change Drivers
This is my first communication on this amazing site.
Could anyone suggest a suitable framework/theory to identify the drivers of change that actually caused that change? I have applied a force field analysis, which has rendered a good result. I ...
     
 
  Where does Power Come From?
What is the origin of power forces?...
     
 
  Unfreeze, Changing and Refreeze
I just wonder besides of "Force Field Analysis" , Kurt Lewin Change Model should also involved with "unfreeze, change, refreeze" part. Could anyone talk about this point?...
     
 
  Be a Change Catalyst
If one has to make a choice that sees the benefits of the greatest majority, then try to be a catalyst in any organization and that I believe can spell the difference after all!...
     
 
  Force Field Diagram Assumptions
I think that the model of Lewin is reducing the dimensions of changes to conflict and opposition between two classes. According to this conception the changes in organsations are fatal and and operate by force and not by peaceful way. This is why ...
     
 
  Implementation of Change in an Organisation
This is a powerful tool of directing the change management process but it is not good enough for implementing the change and integrate it in the management system of an organisation. Other tools such as the balanced scorecard are required to reinforc...
     
 
  Origin of Force Field Analysis
I seem to remember from my early days in OD that Lewin based his model on engineering principles of force analysis taught in Statics and Dynamics of Forces in Mechanical Design. For example, in designing a bridge and determining how to support it yo...
     
 
  MSCS Concept in Force Field Analysis
In the force field analysis I use the MSCS (Magnitude, Symptoms, Causes and Solutions) concept for both the driving forces and the restraining forces. This is effective to make the process very simple....
     
 
  Decreasing Restraining Forces is easier
I have used Force Field Analysis in the past in the Health, Safety and Environment field. Sometimes I find less effort is required to remove Restraining Forces than to reinforce the Driving Forces in order to get the ball rolling in the right directi...
     
 
  Quotes by Kurt Lewin
If you want to truly understand something, try to change it....
     
 
  Post-Merger Force Fields
In Post-Merger relationships restraining forces will include creation of 5th columnists within the organisation, and instigation of negative press by parties who don't want to expose the horrors of their balance sheet that was not identified during d...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Force Field Analysis 高级帐户
 

Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

According to Ken Blanchard in the article Mastering the Art of Change (Training Journal, January 2010), it is important for leaders to address the f...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through Change program, in whic...
Usage (application)Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
 
 
 

The Next Steps when FFA is Done...

After the analysis is done and the existing forces have been identified and rated, action can be planned and undertaken to change the current status i...
Usage (application)Actions to Take after a Force Field Analysis, FFA Implementation
 
 
 

The Force of Employees in Change Inititiaves

The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context ...
Usage (application)Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
 
 
 

Implementing Force Field Analysis in the Strategy Process

In his article "Force Field Analysis: A New Way to Evaluate Your Strategy", J. Thomas established seven guidelines useful when implementing a force fi...
Usage (application)Practical Guidelines, Best Practices
 
 
 

Industrys Driving Forces

Many events can affect an industry powerfully enough to qualify as driving forces. Some are unique and specific to a particular industry, but most ...
Usage (application)Organizational Change
 
 
 

Describing and Analyzing Driving Forces

When analyzing potential trends or driving forces, for them to be relevant they must have at least one effect on the terrain of your focal issue. This...
Usage (application)FFA Implementation
 
 
 

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organizations Capacity for Change

In their book "Transforming Public and Nonprofit Organization Stewardship for Leading Change", James Edwin Kee and Kathryn E. Newcomer argue that th...
Usage (application)Leading Change
 
 
 

Unfreezing, Moving, Freezing

In the early 20th century, psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three phases/stages of change that are still the basis of many change management approac...
Usage (application)Change Management
 
 
 

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

If we need to change strategically, we need to think about why, what, when, who and how:
- Why do we want to change? - the constraints imp...
Usage (application)Preparing Strategic Change
 
 
 

Typical Driving Forces

Typical driving forces include: felt need for change, regulation change, decreasing results, organizational crisis, bonusses, employee development opp...
Usage (application)Examples
 
 
 

Typical Restraining Forces

Typical restraining forces include: inertia, apathy, technology, IT, rigidity, fear for the new, budgets, hostility, distrust, conflicting objectives....
Usage (application)Examples
 
 

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比较: Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Catastrophe Theory[突变理论]  |  Stakeholder Analysis[利益相关者分析]  |  Stakeholder Mapping[利益相关者分析图]  |  RACI[RACI模型]  |  Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  DICE Framework[DICE架构]  |  Crisis Management[危机管理]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Game Theory[博奕论]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Real Options[实物期权]  |  Kepner-Tregoe Matrix[KT矩阵]  |  OODA Loop[包以德循环]  | Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]


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