Force Field Analysis
(Lewin)

Knowledge Center

Analyzing change factors: the driving forces and the restraining forces. Explanation of Force Field Analysis and Diagram. Kurt Lewin.

Contents

  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Expert Tips
  4. Resources

  Print





Why register?
Log in

Kurt Lewin

Kurt Lewin was an American social psychologist. He has contributed to science group dynamics and action research, and he is regarded one of the founders of modern psychology. But Lewin is perhaps best-known for developing Force Field Analysis and Force Field Diagrams.


Force Field Analysis Diagram LewinLewin's view on organizations

According to Kurt Lewin, an issue is held in balance by the interaction of two opposing sets of forces. Those seeking to promote change: the driving forces. And those attempting to maintain the status quo: the restraining forces. Lewin viewed organizations as systems in which the present situation was not a static pattern. But a dynamic balance ("Equilibrium") of forces working in opposite directions. In order for any change to occur, the driving forces must exceed the restraining forces, thus shifting the equilibrium. Compare: Catastrophe Theory.


The Force Field Diagram

The Force Field Diagram is a model built on this idea that forces are both driving and restraining change. These forces include: persons, habits, customs, and attitudes. A Force Field Diagram can be used at any level: personal, project, organizational, network, to visualize the forces that may work in favor and against change initiatives. The diagram helps its user to picture the "war" between forces around a given issue. Usually, a planned change issue is described at the top. Below this, there are two columns. The driving forces are listed in the left column, and the restraining forces in the right-hand column. Arrows are drawn towards the middle. Longer arrows indicate stronger forces. The idea is to understand, and to make explicit, all the forces acting on a given issue.


Use of the Force Field Analysis method

  • Investigate the balance of power involved in an issue.
  • Identify the most important players (stakeholders) and target groups for a campaign on the issue.
  • Identify opponents and allies.
  • Identify how you can influence each target group

Steps in a Force Field Analysis? Process

  1. Describe the current situation.
  2. Describe the desired situation.
  3. Identify where the current situation will go if no action is taken.
  4. List all the forces driving change toward the desired situation.
  5. List all the forces resisting change toward the desired situation.
  6. Discuss and interrogate all of the forces: are they valid? Can they be changed? Which are the critical ones?
  7. Allocate a score to each of the forces using a numerical scale e.g. 1 is extremely weak and 10 is extremely strong.
  8. Chart the forces. List the driving forces on the left. And list the restraining forces on the right.
  9. Determine whether change is viable and progress can occur.
  10. Discuss how the change can be affected by decreasing the strength of the restraining forces or by increasing the strength of driving forces.
  11. Remember that increasing the driving forces or decreasing the restraining forces may increase or decrease other forces or even create new ones.



Force Field Analysis Forum (15 topics) Help
  The Human Factor in Force Field Analysis
The FFA is a great tool in analysing change. In a practical sense, the human factor is the most controversial force in either driving change or restraining change.
We are talking about apathy, ignorance, power, self interests, and antagonism amo...
     
  Using Force Field Analysis for Gender Analysis
Force field analysis is an appropriate tool for gender analysis to identify the deprived class womens short comings, and to show direction how to reduce restraining forces and increase driving forces for more effective gender relationships....
     
  Force Field Analysis Helps to Consider Barriers Before Embarking Change
Change is hard. Force field analysis helps to summarize the barriers. Thus, all phases must be understood before embarking organisational change. The aspects of the future state need to be considered before moving towards the transition. The need ...
     
  Dynamism is the Interface to Change Issues
Change is must for all entities. It is part of every movement, nothing stays standing on the same start point. It is a law of life. So, dynamism is the interface sticked to all change issues. If we see the organization as a complex whole, any changes...
     
  Identifying Change Drivers
This is my first communication on this amazing site.
Could anyone suggest a suitable framework/theory to identify the drivers of change that actually caused that change? I have applied a force field analysis, which has rendered a good result. I ...
     
  Where does Power Come From?
What is the origin of power forces?...
     
  Unfreeze, Changing and Refreeze
I just wonder besides of "Force Field Analysis" , Kurt Lewin Change Model should also involved with "unfreeze, change, refreeze" part. Could anyone talk about this point?...
     
  Be a Change Catalyst
If one has to make a choice that sees the benefits of the greatest majority, then try to be a catalyst in any organization and that I believe can spell the difference after all!...
     
  Force Field Diagram Assumptions
I think that the model of Lewin is reducing the dimensions of changes to conflict and opposition between two classes. According to this conception the changes in organsations are fatal and and operate by force and not by peaceful way. This is why ...
     
  Implementation of Change in an Organisation
This is a powerful tool of directing the change management process but it is not good enough for implementing the change and integrate it in the management system of an organisation. Other tools such as the balanced scorecard are required to reinforc...
     
  Origin of Force Field Analysis
I seem to remember from my early days in OD that Lewin based his model on engineering principles of force analysis taught in Statics and Dynamics of Forces in Mechanical Design. For example, in designing a bridge and determining how to support it yo...
     
  MSCS Concept in Force Field Analysis
In the force field analysis I use the MSCS (Magnitude, Symptoms, Causes and Solutions) concept for both the driving forces and the restraining forces. This is effective to make the process very simple....
     
  Decreasing Restraining Forces is easier
I have used Force Field Analysis in the past in the Health, Safety and Environment field. Sometimes I find less effort is required to remove Restraining Forces than to reinforce the Driving Forces in order to get the ball rolling in the right directi...
     
  Quotes by Kurt Lewin
If you want to truly understand something, try to change it....
     
  Post-Merger Force Fields
In Post-Merger relationships restraining forces will include creation of 5th columnists within the organisation, and instigation of negative press by parties who don't want to expose the horrors of their balance sheet that was not identified during d...
     



Force Field Analysis Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group

Force Field Analysis Education & Events


Find Trainings, Seminars and Events


Expert Tips - Force Field Analysis Premium
  Concerns Against Change and their Remedies - Change Management, Organizational Change
 
  Leadership Strategies for Change - Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
 
  The Next Steps when FFA is Done... - Actions to Take after a Force Field Analysis, FFA Implementation
 
  The Force of Employees in Change Inititiaves - Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
 
  Implementing Force Field Analysis in the Strategy Process - Practical Guidelines, Best Practices
 
  Industry’s Driving Forces - Organizational Change
 
  Describing and Analyzing Driving Forces - FFA Implementation
 
  Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change - Leading Change
 
  Unfreezing, Moving, Freezing - Change Management
 
  Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How - Preparing Strategic Change
 
  Typical Driving Forces - Examples
 
  Typical Restraining Forces - Examples
 

Resources - Force Field Analysis Premium
Force Field Analysis - Force Field Analysis
Managing Organizational Change - Change Management, Leading Change, Organizational Development
22 Best Practices in Change Management - Change Management, Organizational Change
Dealing with Strong Resisters - Dealing with Resistance to Change, Change Management, Training, Workshop
Force Field Analysis Diagram - Force Field Analysis
 

News - Force Analysis

     
 

News - Change Forces

     
 

Videos - Force Analysis

     
 

Videos - Change Forces

     
 

Presentations - Force Analysis

     
 

Presentations - Change Forces

     
 

More - Force Analysis

     
 

More - Change Forces

     

Compare with Force Field Analysis: Change Management Iceberg  |  Catastrophe Theory  |  Stakeholder Analysis  |  Stakeholder Mapping  |  RACI  |  Change Model Beckhard  |  Bases of Social Power  |  DICE Framework  |  Crisis Management  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Culture Types  |  Core Group Theory  |  Planned Behavior  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensions of Change  |  Root Cause Analysis  |  Brainstorming  |  Six Thinking Hats  |  Scenario Planning  |  Game Theory  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning  |  Real Options  |  Kepner-Tregoe Matrix  |  OODA Loop  | Levels of Culture  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance


Return to Management Hub: Change & Organization  |  Communication & Skills  |  Decision-making & Valuation  |  Ethics & Responsibility  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership  |  Program & Project Management  |  Strategy


More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Sponsor
Sponsor this knowledge center

Special Interest Group Leader
Would you like to be our Force Field Analysis SIG Leader?

All you need to know about management

12manage for:



Management Smart Card

12manage in:





Copyright 2014 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V12.0 - Last updated: 29-7-2014. All names tm by their owners.