Six Change Approaches[六变革法]
(Kotter)

知识中心

   

应对变革阻力。 Kotter和Schlesinger的Six Change Approaches[六变革法]解析。 (‘79)

目录

  1. 摘要
  2. 论坛
  3. 最佳实践
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 相关资料
  6. 打印

Kotter和Schlesinger的Six Change Approaches[六变革法]模型旨在预防、减少和弱化组织内部的变革阻力。


变革阻力产生的原因

根据Kotter和Schlesinger的研究(1979),导致某些人阻碍变革的原因主要有四种:

  1. 利己主义。 某些人只考虑变革对自己有没有影响,对自己的利益会产生怎样的影响,而不去考虑变革对组织的成功会产生什么影响。

  2. 纯属误解。 主要是由于信息不全造成的沟通问题 。

  3. 承受力差。 某些人过分依赖有安全感和稳定感的工作环境。

  4. 认识不同。 有些人可能不赞同公司提出来的变革原因,或者不赞同公司所强调的变革利弊。

应对变革阻力的六个途径

Kotter和Schlesinger给出了以下六条途径,用以应对变革阻力:

  1. 教育和沟通。 适用于信息缺乏、信息不准确、或者对变革缺少分析讨论的时候。 其中最为有效的一个方法是, 在实施变革之前,对员工进行宣传教育。 变革前的沟通教育,有助于帮助员工理解变革的逻辑性和合理性,认识到变革之举势在必行, 从而减少关于变革的各种不实谣言。

  2. 参与和融合。 适用于发动变革的领导团队缺乏设计变革的必要信息,以及员工阻力相当大的时候。 当员工被融入到变革活动,他们更可能去顺应变革,参与变革,而不是阻挡变革。 这一方法最好用于消除来自于对变革持默许态度的员工的阻力。

  3. 引导和支持。 适用于变革过程中的各项调整引发员工阻挠的时候。 在这一困难时期,管理人员如果采取支持员工的态度,能够有效防止潜在阻力。 在变革转型过程中,管理人员应该帮助员工梳理他们的担忧和焦虑。 员工之所以害怕变革、阻挠变革,原因主要在于: 他们认为变革会给他们个人带来负面影响。 这一手段的典型方法是,提供正常工作外的专门训练和咨询服务。

  4. 谈判和协商。 适用于部分员工或部门利益受损,以及阻挠力量较大的时候。 管理人员可以通过提供各种形式的激励,使员工放弃抵抗。 比如,可以给员工一定的权利,否决那些对他们来说有危险的变革成分, 或者给予员工特殊政策,允许那些反对变革的人通过买断工龄、或提前退休等形式离开公司, 以避免遭遇变革风险。 这一方法用在那些阻力较大的人员身上比较适合。

  5. 操作和Cooptation。 适用于以上策略发挥不了作用或成本太高的时候。 Kotter和Schlesinger建议, 选举阻挠力量的代表进入变革领导团队,是一个较为有效的操控阻挠人员的方法。 Cooptation介入带领人进入变动管理制定计划组为出现而不是他们实质的贡献。 具体做法就是从那些阻挠变革的员工中选举部分代表作为变革团队的领导成员, 给予他们象征性的决策角色,同时却无碍变革大计。 需要注意的是, 如果这些阻力派领导人物产生被耍弄的感觉,他们有可能会产生更大的抵触情绪,阻挠变革。

  6. 正面施压。 适用于变革刻不容缓的时候, 且最好作为其他办法均无效果时的最后一招。 管理人员可以明确或含蓄向员工施压,告诉他们必须接受变革,否则会导致严重后果,如: 失业、下岗、流动、或失去升迁机会,等等。


六变革法论坛
  Organizational Ideology as a Change Approach
I believe another (7th) approach to change could be: 'Organizational Ideology'.
Ideological change following the situation is a competency and shows the flexibility of management.
One way to change the ideology of an organization is by imp...
     
 
  Change Leadership AND Change Management: 2 Parts of the Same Whole
Thank you for the video of this week explaining the differences between Change Leadership (CL) and Change Management (CM) in Kotter's view.
I humbly suggest that they are mu...
     
 
  Everyone is Part in Change
There is a saying that says "you either get better or you get worse"; you don't stay the same.
So anyway you slice it, you are part of change, it's either good or bad.
This goes for every part of an organization, so if we can get all our pe...
     
 
  Manage Change Like a Salesman
In order to make effective change, the manager has to believe in the change. It is top down. You hear words like "buy in" which means a manager has to talk up the change and make it practical and tangible to the people who are going to make the chang...
     
 
  Participatory Approaches Towards Taking on Change
I think you will find in most cases larger organisations will use a programmatic approach, i.e. a top down approach towards implementing and communicating change. Here I believe issues arise as it does...
     
 
  Dealing with Resistance to Change
- MAINTAINING STATUS QUO means living and working within the known and the comfort zone.
- CHANGE means going beyond frontiers of the known, learning to work with new challenges.
- RESISTANCE TO CHANGE means avoiding newer responsibilities ...
     
 
  Change Dynamics of People Being in the Organization for a Long Time
It seems to me as if the longer people stay in an organisation, the more resistance they develop to any change initiative - despite their advantages. Is this impression of mine correct?...
     
 
  Displacement Through Change
Forging change of a political government and of leadership in a country may mean displacement of political leaders in power. In such case, it appears that their resistance to change is influenced by parochial self-interests, and the tolerance for cha...
     
 
  Diversity and Inclusion
When organizational change involves creating a more diverse and inclusiveness work environment, resistance by some employees may be embedded in fundamental issues such as values and beliefs. Which of Kotter's change approaches may prove most effectiv...
     
 
  Kotter Change Model and ADKAR Model
I am comparing Kotter's model with ADKAR from Prosci, they closely resemble each other though Kotter seems to be more forceful in implementing change....
     
 
  Why Communication is Crucial in Change Processes
Communication is a very critical process in today's challenging times. The success factor is proper communication on:
- Why the change is inevitable, and
- Why the support and involvement of all staff is crucial for successful and cost eff...
     
 
  Why *assume* they are wrong and we are right?
Too many of these explanations for why "they" are fearful, uninformed, unaware are simply an excuse for failing to consider all the implications of the change. If you do that - and you still consider you're right - at least you'll be able to explain ...
     
 
  Resistance to Change Types
Resistance to change can be considered along various dimensions:
- Individual versus Collective resistance
- Passive versus Active resistance
- Direct versus Indirect resistance
- Minor versus Major resistance...
     
 
  Expansion (Change) in Business Focus
Our company is undergoing a major change. We are expanding in a very fast pace and it is a great change! Due to expansion, we have recruited a lot of talented and good people who have the drive, passion for growth/change. The big issue is however tha...
     
 
  Approach #7 to Deal with Resistance
I would add 7th approach. This is facilitation to inner, spiritual development of all those involved into change. Wise people do not resist change, but are open to it. Inner spiritual path, growth to self-awareness and being One brings this wisdom an...
     
 
  Resistance to Change not Just Self-Interest
The first factor in resistance, self interest, may be something less "toxic" and that is complacency (Editor: ~self-satisfaction). At first an individual isn't resistant to change, per se, but it simply doesn't occur to them. Comfort and comp...
     
 
  The Origin of Resistance to Change
It is my belief that resistance to change stems from fear and lack of information. When free-flow of information forms part of the policy of an organization, every worker is able to analyze available information objectively and this eliminates fear ...
     
 
  Trust, change and management
Trust creates trust, mistrust creates mistrust! Managers should create trust in order to be trusted by others. A barrier towards mistrust is a lack of knowledge and the understanding of concepts which leads to the ineffective implementation thereof. ...
     
 
  Change Ability is a Core Competence
The ability of an organization to change quickly and successfully (skillfully combining above and other change approaches) can be viewed as a core competence, which can be continually ...
     
 

六变革法 小组


小组

六变革法 培训|活动


搜索培训、会议及活动项目


最佳实践 - 六变革法 高级帐户
  5th Reason for Resistance to Change: Over Protectiveness of the Status Quo
I am managing a change program for a voluntary organisation for people with learning disabilities whose over caring attitude has developed over decades. The necessary change needs to happen for the organisation's survival.
I think there is a 5th...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Six Change Approaches 高级帐户
 

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Organizational change is often difficult to achieve because it disturbs the hierarchical structures and the way to accomplish things. For this reason ...
Usage (application)Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives
 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through Change program, in whic...
Usage (application)Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
 
 
 

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

In their article "Making Change Happen, and Making It Stick" (published in the online edition of strategy+business, December 20, 2010), Ashley Harshak...
Usage (application)Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

Categories of Change Tools and Approaches

According to Christensen et al. in HBR Oct 2007, 4 types of "tools" can be distinguished, depending on the extent that people agree on WHAT they want ...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

What Change Agents Should I Use?

When choosing between internal or external change agents, organizations should consider following advantages and disadvantages of each o...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management
 
 
 

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Speculand (2009) suggests six mind shifts that people should consider when they're implementing new strategies in organizations. These are outlined an...
Usage (application)Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation
 
 
 

Types of Change. Classification

Organizational change varies along at least to dimensions (expected-unexpected and incremental-radical) and can be managed by classifying it in one of...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change, Expected/Unexpected Change, Incremental/Radical Change
 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized.
An interesting view to s...
Usage (application)Communicating Strategic Change
 
 
 

Approaches to Planned Change

Organizations may take one of the following three approaches to planned change:
- Structural Approach: The structural approach focu...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 

相关资料 - 六变革法 高级帐户
 

新闻

变革方法
     
 

新闻

变革阻力
     
 

视频

变革方法
     
 

视频

变革阻力
     
 

简报

变革方法
     
 

简报

变革阻力
     
 

更多

变革方法
     
 

更多

变革阻力
     

比较: Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Organic Organization[有机式组织]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  People-CMM[人力资源能力成熟度模式]  |  Change Management[变革管理]  |  Dimensions of Change[变革尺度]  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work[关系工作的四个类型]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Office of Strategy Management[战略管理办公室]  |  Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change[组织绩效与变革因果关系模型]


返回到分类主页: 变革与组织  |   人力资源管理  |   领导力  |  计划与项目管理  |  战略与策略


更多管理方法、模型和理论

Special Interest Group Leader

你在这里


关于12manage | 广告服务 | 链接我们 | 隐私 | 服务条款
版权所有 2016 12manage经理人进阶捷径。V14.1 - 最后更新:28-9-2016。各管理方法名称(tm)为其原创者所拥有。