Core Group Theory[核心组理论]
(Kleiner)

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组织首当其冲的目标任务是什么? 让核心组快乐。 Art Kleiner的Core Group Theory[核心组理论]解析。

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现代企业的真实目标

Kleiner大胆披露,每一个组织首当其冲的目标其实是: 让核心组(Core Group)满意——通常就是指让高管们满意。 虽然对他们常有各种不满和抱怨,但是根据Kleiner的观点,他们并非天生就是机能不良、功能紊乱, 他们效力的组织恰似放大了人类机体,他们是人类尊严、尊贵的保证和希望所在。 核心组是每一个组织的力量源泉和指路明灯, 更准确地说,组织发展方向依据核心组的需要,并由核心组来决定。 核心组决定组织内其他成员的发展方向, 组织内其他成员决定核心组及其成员的合法性。


通常,在各种组织结构图谱上我们很少看见核心组这一单元, 比较: Organization Chart[组织结构图]。 它仅仅存在于人们的脑海里和内心深处。 组织工作一段时间过后,人们就会发现组织运行、表现越来越像它的核心组, 与此同时,组织还会自动调集一切力量为核心组成员提供他们所需、所想的各种配备,甚至都不需要核心组成员开口要求。 优秀的核心组拥有组织所必需的重要知识和经验, 在组织内,他们构建一种特殊的、适宜的情境,使得这种知识得以传播、贯彻,并显得更为宝贵。


核心组何以如此强有力量?

Kleiner解释道,核心组的力量源自臆测与放大机制(Guesswork and Amplification)。 核心组外成员往往会猜测核心组成员的想法, 即便某个核心组成员的偶然言论也会被放大并传遍整个部门, 所以,企业高管们必须三缄其口、谨慎其言。 根据Kleiner的研究,即便是Balanced Scorecard[平衡计分卡]这类管理方法对这一现象也不会有实质的改变。 就算组织运用更客观的管理衡量手段以及更有效的自上而下的战略沟通办法,企业内部仍然会存有大量的臆测行为存在: 当组织成员需要解释说明某个数字时,他们会猜想什么结果是Core Group[核心组]真正想要的,并据此而答;组织成员甚至还会假设他们应该根据这些数字结果来解释Core Group[核心组]的行为决定: 如果某一管理量度办法,给出某一清晰结果(发出信号),组织成员就会认定这是Core Group[核心组]打算前进的方向。 根据Kleiner,Core Group[核心组]体系也是造成组织变革不易的一个原因, Core Group[核心组]成员与组织的其他员工都喜欢保持现有状态。


Core Group[核心组]扩大化组织

Kleiner主张构造一个Core Group[核心组]扩大化了的组织, 并给出如下建议:

  • 员工配股计划。
  • 财务知识教育。
  • 非层级的决策。
  • 综合培训计划(财务与战略)。

这是核心组理论不同于Value Based Management[价值管理]理念的地方。


就价值管理来讲,如果需要把价值创造考虑进来,对于一个组织来说,决定是以股东价值最大化大化为目标,还是把核心组放在首位考虑,就显得尤为重要。 后者是Stakeholder Value Perspective[利益相关者价值观]一个很重要的体现。 Group[核心组]理论由此就能够解释一个现象,为什么有些公司尽管采纳了股东价值最大化的经营理念,但看起来却没有尽心尽职为股东服务。 有时Group[核心组]成员还会错误地认为,组织的首要任务就是保持股价不跌, 于是,他们最简单的做法就是, 让季度报表表现出缓慢平稳的增长趋势。 经由臆测和放大机制作用,整个组织将跟随Group[核心组]一步步迈向更大的错误, 最终结果就是,组织呈现于Group[核心组]眼前的是一幅扭曲的、失真的现实图景,而事实上组织已经背离了自己的真正目标: 实现股东(或利益相关者)价值最大化。 比较: Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]


参考书: Art Kleiner - Who Really Matters -


核心组理论论坛
  Key Assumptions of the Core Group Theory
Kleiner says that the Core Group Theory (CGT) holds for both for-profit organizations and non-profit organizations. The theory helps to clarify certain behavior that has not been explained by other organizational theories yet.
However, for the C...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Core Group Theory 高级帐户
 

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Usage (application)Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
 
 
 

Kleiners Core Group Theory versus Thompsons Dominant Coalition on Decentralization

In the article Core Group Theory and the emancipation agenda the CGT of Kleiner and the Dominant Coalition of Thompson are compared. Both theories h...
Usage (application)Mechanisms Behind Core Groups and Dominant Coalitions
 
 
 

Who really matters? Who is in my Organization's Core Group?

In order to find out which people are in the core group of your organization, Art Kleiner suggest asking yourself following questions:
- Thinking...
Usage (application)Strategy, Leadership
 
 
 

Pluralistic Ignorance and the Abilene Paradox

Pluralistic Ignorance can be described as a situation in which a certain person has an opinion, but believes that most of his or her colleagues hold t...
Usage (application)Problems in Group Decision Making
 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized.
An interesting view to s...
Usage (application)Communicating Strategic Change
 
 
 

PROs and CONs of a Strong Corporate Culture

Implementing a significant change is generally easier when the corporate culture is not strong. By strong Corporate Culture is meant that values an...
Usage (application)Corporate Culture Change, Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

Am I in the Core Group?

Art Kleiner suggests asking yourself following questions in order to find out if you are in the core group of your organization or not:
- Are you...
Usage (application)Strategy, Leadership
 
 

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比较:  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Organization Chart[组织结构图]  |  Organic Organization[有机式组织]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Framing[心理定格]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]


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