Just-in-time[JIT,即时生产]

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Supply Chain Planning[供应链规划]。 Taiichi Ohno的 Just-in-time[JIT,即时生产]哲学解析。 (‘70)

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即时生产

什么是即时生产? 释义

即时生产(JIT)最先由日本丰田汽车公司的Taiichi Ohno于上个世纪70年代初期提出, 它是一种生产管理哲学。   JIT要求物料供应部门只有在装配流程需要时才向组装厂提供零配件,从而减少浪费。 JIT理论的核心是看板管理(Kanban),Kanban是日语“卡片”的意思。 当生产/装配线上的原材料、零部件耗尽时,就会将Kanban送到仓库,要求仓储部门按照Kanban标明的定量提供原料、配件。 JIT对精度的要求很高,即正确的部件必须即时地抵达准确的地点(装配线)。 它主要应用于大规模重复生产流程。


即时生产的沿革

JIT源于以下两个原因:

  1. 日本企业希望改进其生产质量。 历史上,日本企业也曾因为生产质量不过关而享有恶名,尤其是汽车制造业。
  2. Kaizen[改善],日本企业实现持续改进的另一个方法。 

即时生产的理论架构认为,库存是规划不当、生产僵硬、设备错误以及质量问题的一个可怜借口, JIT的目标就是要在尽可能减少库存的同时,提高顾客需求反应速度。 库存虽然有助于快速应对不断变化的顾客需求,但是不可避免地将增加成本以及对营运资金的需求。


1990年,James Womack出版了《改变世界的机器》(The Machine that Changed the World)一书,率先提出了“精益制造”(Lean Manufacturing的概念, 有时也称作为: “精益生产”(Lean Production。 这些新鲜名词、时髦方法背后的法则与Taiichi Ohno发展的“即时生产”并没有本质区别。


即时生产的关注点

以下几个方面是JIT实施过程中要尤为注意的:

  • 减少库存。
  • 少量生产、批量生产。
  • 控制质量。
  • 减小复杂程度,增加透明度。
  • 组织结构、层级关系扁平化。
  • 废料率最小化。

外延扩展的JIT

随着互联网技术的广泛运用,以及供应链规划软件的问世,公司已经能够将JIT扩展延伸至组织边界之外。 通过要求供应商实时提供原材料,实现JIT生产,公司的订货、配送等流程变得更快捷、更灵活、更高效。 现在,综合化的供需网络(亦被称之为“电子供应链”)已经正在形成。


即时生产论坛
  如何提高玩具的生产效率
生产效率是每一个玩具企业都想不断提高的一个想法。
但如何提高呢?
1:激励工人的积极性。
2:合理安排物料控制,减少待料时间。
3:减少不必要的搬运。
4:尽量使...
     
 
  Waste Elimination
Got it, JIT and Lean production share the same methodology!...
     
 
  List of Barriers to Just-in-Time | Barriers to JIT
Though JIT as a theoretical concept seems superb, there are practical barriers in getting this concept to work in reality and get JIT implemented properly. Let's create a complete a list of all those barriers to act as a reference for those wanting t...
     
 
  Single Minute Exchange of Dies
Dear reader, I am currently working on a Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) project in a beer production facility.
To implement SMED, I need to determine the baseline on which processes are done now during the changeover. I wanted to FILM thi...
     
 
  Customer Support in Just in Time is Needed
I think for implementing Just-In-Time, the customer must support it with firm and better forecasting, co-operative and committed for inwarding supplies as per the issued schedules. Else we will get sandwiched between performance and customer r...
     
 
  Can Just-in-Time Work Without Kanban?
Just-in-Time is a basic philosophy or a paradigm. If you read about it, you still have no idea HOW to do it.

Kanban however gives a practical way to achieve Just-in-Time. As Taiichi Ohno says:Kanban, in essence, becomes the autono...
     
 
  The Principles of Lean
Lean works on certain principles:
1. Identify customer specific value (customer requirements);
2. Value stream mapping for the process (identify process);
3. Create flow (reduce cycle time);
4. Eliminate waste and non-value-added ...
     
 
  Classification of Lean Tools
Can you briefly explain how to classify lean tools?
I mean: different people seem to classify Lean tools in different ways, for example according to the 8 wastes. Who can give me another way to clas...
     
 
  Just-in-time Needs Flexibility
Of course, Just-in-time needs a flexible manufacturing system.
But actually, this flexibility has several aspects. For a proper functioning JIT-system, flexibility is required towards:
* Changes in product demand: the process ...
     
 
  How to Reduce the Vendor Risks with Just-in-Time ?
When we execute JIT, we normally require our vendor to prepare some stock to deliver fast.
If there are design change requests, or other products updates, how to reduce vendor stock risk?...
     
 
  The Impact of JIT on the Organization of Production Planning
JIT will have a strong impact on your organization of production planning.
With JIT, a factory should operate in a company similar as the autonomic nervous system in the human body. For example the human body will take care of our heartbeat and ...
     
 
  Why is a Sustainable Business Approach Capable of Removing So Much Inefficiency after years of JIT?
I had a very interesting conversation with someone who has become recently Chief Sustainability Officer of a top 10 pharma company (after years as global head of engineering there).
He is using a  
   
 
  Experiences with Including Purchased Parts in Kanban
Taiichi Ohno was plant manager of a Toyota factory when he started experimenting with JIT, Kanban and other Lean tools. This is one of his stories:
we used Kanban in select areas only and the purchased parts were the very last to be p...
     
 
  Just-in-time: Problematic or Possible?
Just-in-time (JIT) has always been a troublesome part of the management of any supply chain. However, it is feasible if the parties have a better understanding of their respective roles and the value each must bring to the chain.
Managing a supp...
     
 
  Definition of Just-in-time
JIT can be considered as:
1. A way of life
2. A philosophy of continuous improvement
3. A way to achieve manufacturing excellence by continually eliminating waste....
     
 
  Poka Yoke - Explanation
Poka Yoke is a method that shapes the production process the way it gets almost impossible to make mistakes. Employees have to make improvements in the process and needs to come up with proposals on how to prevent all the mistakes. The process has to...
     
 
  Information Velocity
Why is information velocity important in supply chain management?...
     
 
  Importance of Inventory Velocity
Why is inventory velocity so important in supply chain management?...
     
 
  Lean Manufacturing Tools for Beginners
Could somebody tell me what are the most important lean tools and techniques that should be used in a company that are about to implement lean manufacturing for the first time? Why? Thank you for your suggestions....
     
 

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最佳实践 - 即时生产 高级帐户
  Combining JIT and Outsourcing
JIT and outsourcing go hand in hand.
On one side it seems contradictory. JIT stands for producing and delivering to the customer what he wants when he wants. This is an extreme challenging condition. So you would expect that we should not furthe...
     
 
  Assumptions of Just-in-time (JIT)
Assumptions for effective JIT:
1. It depends on the type of product a company is manufacturing. JIT works best in food (perishable) business, fashion but can also be applied in cars manufacturing like in Toyota.
2. Deep buyer-supplier relat...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Just-in-time 高级帐户
 

Main Advantages of JIT?

Among the main causes for the success of Just-in-time are its capabilities to deal with certain major economic trends:
a. Deal with decrea...
Usage (application)Benefits of Just-in-time
 
 
 

Lean Tools to Attack Waste

What lean tools you can use for every waste you can find at your company?
Before you try to implement these lean tools you have to train your ass...
Usage (application)Waste Management, Waste Tools Overview
 
 
 

7 Things to Avoid in Just-in-Time

The seven zeros or seven areas of wastes in JIT / Lean Thinking are:
- Zero Defects: To avoid delays due to defects
- Zero (Excess) Lot Siz...
Usage (application)Just-in-Time Pitfalls
 
 
 

Use of Andon as Part of Just-in-time

Just-in-time is a pull-system. That means that when the customer places his order, the machine starts rolling.
Of course the whole organiz...
Usage (application)Signaling Abnormalities
 
 
 

The 8 Wastes of Lean Explained

T - Transport - Moving people, products & information
I - Inventory - Storing parts, pieces, documentation ahead of requirements
M - Motion ...
Usage (application)Waste Management
 
 
 

Standard Work in Just-in-Time

A just-in-time organization has to be capable to function 100% reliable when pulled by the customer.
To achieve this readiness the organ...
Usage (application)Just-in-Time
 
 
 

Operation Management Issues and Focus Areas

According to Heizer and Render, there are 10 decision areas of Operation Management (each having typical issues):
1. Goods and Services De...
Usage (application)Operations Management, JIT, Kaizen
 
 
 

How to Focus your Improvement Efforts?

Very often organizations consider continuous improvement as committing on improvement efforts, and thus creating projects to implement them, in all ar...
Usage (application)Achieve More With Less, Kaizen, BPR, JIT, Lean, Value Chain
 
 
 

Synonyms of Just-in-time (JIT)

Instead of JIT, you may also find the following similar terms:
- Continuous Flow Manufacturing (IBM)
- Stockless Production (HP)
- Repe...
Usage (application)Other Terms that are used to Indicate JIT
 
 
 

JIT II

The term JIT II has been applied as co-location and is a further step toward reducing unnecessary logistics times and costs and exploring further oppo...
Usage (application)JIT with supplier
 
 
 

Obtaining a High Supplier Quality

W. Edward Deming, a well-known management consultant, strongly recommended Sole (Single) Sourcing as the only management way to obtain high supplier q...
Usage (application)Best Practice to Consider
 
 

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比较: Kaizen[改善]  |  Deming Cycle[戴明循环]  |  Scientific Management[科学管理]  |  Six Sigma[六西格玛]  |  Value Chain[价值链]  |  Value Stream Mapping[价值流程图]  |  CPFR  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  3rd Party Logistics[3PL,第三方物流]  |  RFID Technology[无线射频识别技术]


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