Filosofia del Just-in-time | Filosofia del JIT

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Progettazione della Supply Chain. Spiegazione della filosofia Just-in-time di Taiichi Ohno. ('70)

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Just-in-Time

Che cosa è Just-in-Time? Definizione

Il just-in-time è stato inventato da Taiichi Ohno in Giappone negli impianti di assemblaggio di automobili Toyota agli inizi degli anni 70. È una filosofia per le organizzazione di produzione.   Il JIT diminuisce lo spreco fornendo le parti soltanto quando il processo di assemblaggio le richiede. Nel cuore del JIT si trova il kanban, la parola giapponese per scheda. Questa scheda kanban è trasmessa al magazzino per chiedere una quantità standard di parti man mano che sono stati usate nel processo di assemblaggio/produzione. Il JIT richiede precisione, poichè le giuste parti devono arrivare “just-in-time„ alla giusta posizione (posto di lavoro della catena di montaggio). È usato soprattutto per grandi processi di produzione ripetitivi. 


Storia del Just-in-Time

Storicamente, la filosofia del JIT è scaturita da altre due cose:

  1. Il desiderio del Giappone di migliorare la propria qualità di produzione. A quel tempo, le aziende giapponesi avevano una cattiva reputazione per quanto riguarda la qualità della produzione, in particolare nel settore delle automobili.
  2. Kaizen, un metodo giapponese di miglioramento continuo.

Il Just-in-time considera i magazzini come una scarsa giustificazione della cattiva progettazione, dell'inflessibilità, dei macchinari sbagliati, dei problemi di qualità, ecc. Il target del JIT è accelerare la risposta del cliente minimizzando allo stesso tempo l'inventario. Gli Inventari contribuiscono a rispondere rapidamente ai cambiamenti di domanda del cliente, ma inevitabilmente costano soldi e aumentano il capitale circolante necessario.


Nel 1990 James Womack ha scritto un libro chiamato “La Macchina Che Ha Cambiato Il Mondo„, introducendo la terminologia “Lean Manufacturing [Manifuttura Snella]„. E possibile anche incontrare la parola: “Produzione Snella„. I principii dietro questi metodi non differiscono sostanzialmente dalle tecniche sviluppate da Ohno alla Toyota.


Aree di attenzione del Just-in-Time

Le aree tipiche di attenzione delle implementazioni di JIT includono:

  • Riduzione dell'Inventario.
  • Lotti di produzione più piccoli.
  • Controllo di qualità.
  • Riduzione della complessità e trasparenza.
  • Struttura organizzativa orizzontale e delegazione.
  • Minimizzazione degli sprechi.

Just-in-Time esteso esterno

Con l'arrivo di Internet e dei software di Progettazione della Supply Chain, le aziende hanno esteso la produzione Just-in-time fino al di  fuori delle frontiere aziendali. Richiedendo ai loro fornitori di portare il magazzino in fabbrica soltanto quando è neccessario per l'assemblaggio, rendendo la produzione JIT, l'ordine ed i processi di consegna ancora più veloci, più flessibili e più efficienti. In questo modo si sono formate le Reti Integrate di Fornitura [Integrated Supply Networks]  (Reti di Domanda) o le Supply Chain Elettroniche.


Filosofia del Just-in-time | Filosofia del JIT Forum
  List of Barriers to Just-in-Time | Barriers to JIT
Though JIT as a theoretical concept seems superb, there are practical barriers in getting this concept to work in reality and get JIT implemented properly. Let's create a complete a list of all those barriers to act as a reference for those wanting t...
     
 
  Single Minute Exchange of Dies
Dear reader, I am currently working on a Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) project in a beer production facility.
To implement SMED, I need to determine the baseline on which processes are done now during the changeover. I wanted to FILM thi...
     
 
  Customer Support in Just in Time is Needed
I think for implementing Just-In-Time, the customer must support it with firm and better forecasting, co-operative and committed for inwarding supplies as per the issued schedules. Else we will get sandwiched between performance and customer r...
     
 
  Can Just-in-Time Work Without Kanban?
Just-in-Time is a basic philosophy or a paradigm. If you read about it, you still have no idea HOW to do it.

Kanban however gives a practical way to achieve Just-in-Time. As Taiichi Ohno says:”Kanban, in essence, becomes the autono...
     
 
  The Principles of Lean
Lean works on certain principles:
1. Identify customer specific value (customer requirements);
2. Value stream mapping for the process (identify process);
3. Create flow (reduce cycle time);
4. Eliminate waste and non-value-added ...
     
 
  Classification of Lean Tools
Can you briefly explain how to classify lean tools?
I mean: different people seem to classify Lean tools in different ways, for example according to the 8 wastes. Who can give me another way to clas...
     
 
  Just-in-time Needs Flexibility
Of course, Just-in-time needs a flexible manufacturing system.
But actually, this flexibility has several aspects. For a proper functioning JIT-system, flexibility is required towards:
* Changes in product demand: the process ...
     
 
  How to Reduce the Vendor Risks with Just-in-Time ?
When we execute JIT, we normally require our vendor to prepare some stock to deliver fast.
If there are design change requests, or other products updates, how to reduce vendor stock risk?...
     
 
  The Impact of JIT on the Organization of Production Planning
JIT will have a strong impact on your organization of production planning.
With JIT, a factory should operate in a company similar as the autonomic nervous system in the human body. For example the human body will take care of our heartbeat and ...
     
 
  Why is a Sustainable Business Approach Capable of Removing So Much Inefficiency after years of JIT?
I had a very interesting conversation with someone who has become recently Chief Sustainability Officer of a top 10 pharma company (after years as global head of engineering there).
He is using a  
   
 
  Experiences with Including Purchased Parts in Kanban
Taiichi Ohno was plant manager of a Toyota factory when he started experimenting with JIT, Kanban and other Lean tools. This is one of his stories:
‘ … we used Kanban in select areas only and the purchased parts were the very last to be p...
     
 
  Just-in-time: Problematic or Possible?
Just-in-time (JIT) has always been a troublesome part of the management of any supply chain. However, it is feasible if the parties have a better understanding of their respective roles and the value each must bring to the chain.
Managing a supp...
     
 
  Definition of Just-in-time
JIT can be considered as:
1. A way of life
2. A philosophy of continuous improvement
3. A way to achieve manufacturing excellence by continually eliminating waste....
     
 
  Poka Yoke - Explanation
Poka Yoke is a method that shapes the production process the way it gets almost impossible to make mistakes. Employees have to make improvements in the process and needs to come up with proposals on how to prevent all the mistakes. The process has to...
     
 
  Information Velocity
Why is information velocity important in supply chain management?...
     
 
  Importance of Inventory Velocity
Why is inventory velocity so important in supply chain management?...
     
 
  Lean Manufacturing Tools for Beginners
Could somebody tell me what are the most important lean tools and techniques that should be used in a company that are about to implement lean manufacturing for the first time? Why? Thank you for your suggestions....
     
 
  JIT is Playground for Big Companies
I think that JIT or zero inventory or any system aiming similar targets needs power to execute. There are three cushions against delivery time variability.
1. Stock
2. Extra capacity
3. Unhappy customers
Big companies may p...
     
 
  JIT in Variable Marketplaces
In trying to implement a JIT system within my organisation. We are finding difficulties due to the random flows we are seeing. This random flow of products is making it hard to establish optimal stock levels.
With optimal stock levels establishe...
     
 

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Migliori Pratiche - Filosofia del Just-in-time | Filosofia del JIT Premium
  Combining JIT and Outsourcing
JIT and outsourcing go hand in hand.
On one side it seems contradictory. JIT stands for producing and delivering to the customer what he wants when he wants. This is an extreme challenging condition. So you would expect that we should not furthe...
     
 
  Assumptions of Just-in-time (JIT)
Assumptions for effective JIT:
1. It depends on the type of product a company is manufacturing. JIT works best in food (perishable) business, fashion but can also be applied in cars manufacturing like in Toyota.
2. Deep buyer-supplier relat...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Just-in-time Premium
 

Main Advantages of JIT?

Among the main causes for the success of Just-in-time are its capabilities to deal with certain major economic trends:
a. Deal with decrea...
Usage (application): Benefits of Just-in-time
 
 
 

Lean Tools to Attack Waste

What lean tools you can use for every waste you can find at your company?
Before you try to implement these lean tools you have to train your ass...
Usage (application): Waste Management, Waste Tools Overview
 
 
 

7 Things to Avoid in Just-in-Time

The seven zeros or seven areas of wastes in JIT / Lean Thinking are:
- Zero Defects: To avoid delays due to defects
- Zero (Excess) Lot Siz...
Usage (application): Just-in-Time Pitfalls
 
 
 

Use of Andon as Part of Just-in-time

Just-in-time is a pull-system. That means that when the customer places his order, the machine starts rolling.
Of course the whole organiz...
Usage (application): Signaling Abnormalities
 
 
 

The 8 Wastes of Lean Explained

T - Transport - Moving people, products & information
I - Inventory - Storing parts, pieces, documentation ahead of requirements
M - Motion ...
Usage (application): Waste Management
 
 
 

Standard Work in Just-in-Time

A just-in-time organization has to be capable to function 100% reliable when ‘pulled’ by the customer.
To achieve this readiness the organ...
Usage (application): Just-in-Time
 
 
 

Operation Management Issues and Focus Areas

According to Heizer and Render, there are 10 decision areas of Operation Management (each having typical issues):
1. Goods and Services De...
Usage (application): Operations Management, JIT, Kaizen
 
 
 

How to Focus your Improvement Efforts?

Very often organizations consider continuous improvement as committing on improvement efforts, and thus creating projects to implement them, in all ar...
Usage (application): Achieve More With Less, Kaizen, BPR, JIT, Lean, Value Chain
 
 
 

Synonyms of Just-in-time (JIT)

Instead of JIT, you may also find the following similar terms:
- Continuous Flow Manufacturing (IBM)
- Stockless Production (HP)
- Repe...
Usage (application): Other Terms that are used to Indicate JIT
 
 
 

JIT II

The term JIT II has been applied as co-location and is a further step toward reducing unnecessary logistics times and costs and exploring further oppo...
Usage (application): JIT with supplier
 
 
 

Obtaining a High Supplier Quality

W. Edward Deming, a well-known management consultant, strongly recommended Sole (Single) Sourcing as the only management way to obtain high supplier q...
Usage (application): Best Practice to Consider
 
 

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