Groupthink[团体迷思]
(Janis)

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寻求团体共识。 Irving Janis的Groupthink[团体迷思]详解。 (‘72)

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  1. 摘要
  2. 论坛
  3. 最佳实践
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 相关资料
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团体迷思,是美国心理学家Irving Janis根据其所从事的团体决策研究发展起来的一项理论, 它的理论基础是现实的人类社会行为,根据Janis的研究,人们团体决策过程中,往往会为了维护团体的和谐和凝聚力,而弃事实真相于不顾。 Janis为团体迷思做了如下定义:


什么是团体迷思? 释义

团体成员在集体主意精神感召下, 当成员的努力为全体一致忽略他们的动机现实地估价作用的选择过程。


团体迷思是团体凝聚力导致的一个负面结果,这一现象早在20世纪30年代就引起了Lewin的注意,认为它是一个非常重要的因素,会影响各种类型的组织决策,如工作组、研讨会、委员会,等等。


团体迷思的诱发因素

  • 团体有很强的凝聚力。
  • 团体排斥孤立不同意见。
  • 团体由命令式领导人所领导。

团体迷思的后果

  1. 团体讨论局限于有限的几个方案。
  2. 被大多数团体成员所接受的方案,其负面影响得不到反复深入研究。
  3. 团体轻易放弃那些不被大多数成员所接受的选择方案。
  4. 团体讨论中听不到专家的意见、声音。
  5. 团体只专著于收集、选择那些可以获得到的信息。
  6. 团体迷信于既定决策,不考虑发生意外时的替代方案。

防止团体迷思

  1. 在团体里安排一个故意唱反调的角色。
  2. 鼓励每一位团体成员都要做评论家。
  3. 领导者不应该持有任何倾向、立场。
  4. 设立独立讨论团队。
  5. 将讨论团队在细分为讨论小组。
  6. 与团体之外的人士交流意见。
  7. 邀请团体之外的专家参与团体讨论,为讨论引入源头活水。
  8. 征集匿名反馈意见和建议, 既可以用传统的意见箱,也可以采用网络论坛。 参见: Delphi Method[德尔菲法]

团体迷思典型表现

Janis指出了将团体决策引入歧途的团体迷思八大症状, 其中第一、二条源于团体领导权威的过分自信, 第三、四条反映了团体成员看待问题的狭隘目光, 最后四条则反映了高度一致所造成的团体压力。

  1. 产生无懈可击的错觉: Janis用一句话总结了这一态度,“什么都是对的,我们是与众不同的团队”。 缺少对选择方案的审查。
  2. 对群体道德深信不疑: 在群体迷思支配下,团体成员想当然地相信群体决策的正义性。 比较: Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]
  3. 集体合理化: 通过集体意志将团体做出的决策合理化,忽视外来挑战, 在收集信息时暴露出高度的选择性。
  4. 党同伐异的成见。
  5. 缺少自我审查: 团体成员即便对讨论、决策有疑虑时,也只会提供模棱两可的观点, 不会想到去征求专家意见,或与外部人士交流, 团体压力使人们趋于高度一致, 没有批评性意见。
  6. 产生团体一致的错觉。 团体成员的意见看起来互为一致,并由此造成团体和谐统一的错觉。
  7. 直接打压不同意见者。 用压力保护团体,将不同观点、负面信息拒之于门外。
  8. 自命的卫道士: 这些团体里的卫道士会运用各种方法,自觉保护团体领导免遭异见骚扰。

团体迷思论坛
  Can Groupthink also be Useful?
Even though Groupthink is largely negative, it is not all bad. Software Engineering has spawned a new software development paradigm that actually utilizes the negative effects of Groupthink for a very positive use.

What is Groupthink?
     
 
  Reactions by Groups to Dishonest Behavior
Keck (2014) examined in what way groups react to dishonest behavior in comparison with individuals. According to the author, the so-called escalation hypothesis is valid. This hypothesis suggests that groups react more strongly to dishone...
     
 
  Group Thinking and Precast Rituals
Every company is thinking in groups. One group typically has the same opinions, habits etc. After some time the members do things in a particular way.
Other methods and thinking that are not fitting in the "Group Thinking precast rituals" are no...
     
 
  How to Avoid Groupthink? Six Thinking Hats
Edward De Bono's Six Thinking Hats method is an excellent way to avoid Groupthink. In this approach everyone together play different roles: devil's advocate (black hat), idea creator (green hat), new ...
     
 
  What is a Group. Types of Groups
A group is defined as: two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
In organizations there is a need to study group behavior along with the behavior of individuals. Each...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Groupthink 高级帐户
 

Boosting Creativity in Groups Avoiding Groupthink

Following 13 golden rules to boost creativity in group and avoid Groupthink to happen:
1. All ideas and information have to be accepted without c...
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Strategies to Change Employee Habits, Hearts and Heads

According to J.E. Kee and K.E. Newcomer ("Why Do Change Efforts Fail? What Can Leaders Do About It?", The Public Manager, Fall 2008), the key to chang...
Usage (application)Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

The Advantages of Group Decision-Making

The benefits of group decision-making include:
- Synergy: Group decisions tend to combine and improve on the knowledge of the grou...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

The Disadvantages of Group Decision-Making

The drawbacks of group decision-making include:
- Longer time frame: Groups generally need more time to make decisions than individ...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

How to Avoid Groupthink?

One method that is particularly well suited to avoid Groupthink is the Six Think...
Usage (application)Prevention Mechanisms
 
 
 

Mobilize the Expertise in your Team Early On

In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or decision-making capacity of your ...
Usage (application)Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
 
 
 

3 Causes of Disagreement in Team Decision-making Processes

According to Freeman and Haskins (2014), there are three main categories of potential root causes for disagreements within teams. When such a disagree...
Usage (application)Group Decision-making, Team Decision-making, Reasons for Disagreement, 3 Fs, Group Collaboration
 
 
 

The Mechanism behind Groupthink in Organizations

Why is changing an organization culture so difficult? Because, once it is established, a culture has the tendency to strengthen itself, become more ho...
Usage (application)Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment
 
 
 

Avoiding Groupthink in Brainstorming

Cardstorming is a creativity tool, similar to Brainstorming, allowing people to share ideas. It can be used as an alternative to brainstorming when th...
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Pluralistic Ignorance and the Abilene Paradox

Pluralistic Ignorance can be described as a situation in which a certain person has an opinion, but believes that most of his or her colleagues hold t...
Usage (application)Problems in Group Decision Making
 
 
 

Janis Revisited

In the paper "Groupthink Versus High-Quality Decision Making in International Relations" by Schafer, Janis work is revisited, thereby applying...
Usage (application)Critical Review of Groupthink
 
 
 

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Implementing a significant change is generally easier when the corporate culture is not strong. By strong Corporate Culture is meant that values an...
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Recovering from Groupthink

When you have been unable to avoid Groupthink from occuring in an event, you can do the following to decrease the damage:
1. Monitor constantly i...
Usage (application)Dealing with Groupthink
 
 

相关资料 - 团体迷思 高级帐户
 

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比较: Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Framing[心理定格]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]  |  Spiral Dynamics[螺旋动力学]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]


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