Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图] | Fishbone Diagram[鱼骨图] (石川馨)

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辨识和处置事故或问题的原因。 石川馨的因果图/鱼骨图解析。 (1943)

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石川馨Fishbone Diagram[鱼骨图] 什么是鱼骨图? 释义

因果图(Cause and Effect Diagram),又称鱼骨图(Fishbone Diagram),是由日本质量控制兼统计专家石川馨(Kaoru Ishikawa)教授发明的一种图解法,用以辨识和处置事故或问题的原因。 因果图以图表的形式指出造成某种结果的各级原因之间的等级关系。 因果图(鱼骨图)往往还被称为 石川图(Ishikawa Diagram)
 

鱼骨图的起源。 历史

鱼骨图的发明人石川馨教授,任教于日本东京大学,他是日本杰出的质量管理大师。 1943年,他首次运用鱼骨图帮助川崎钢铁厂的工程师们理解造成生产问题的各因素之间是如何相互关联的。


因果图 | 鱼骨图的用法。 应用

  • 以团队努力,聚焦并攻克复杂难题。 比较: 8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]
  • 辨识导致问题或情况的所有原因,并从中找出根本原因。
  • 分析导致问题的各原因之间相互关系。
  • 采取补救措施、正确行动。

鱼骨图分析法的步骤。 流程

  1. 首先,对团队成员讲解会议目的。 然后,认清、阐明所要解决的问题,并就此达成一致意见。
  2. 安置一块白板或挂纸白板,用于后面的分析,确保每一位成员都能够看清白板内容。 在白板的最右侧中间位置画一长方形,其内填入所需解决的问题,一条箭头线从左至右指向长方形(问题)。

  3. 召开Brainstorming[头脑风暴]研讨会。 在最初的草案阶段,对于鱼骨图的主叉可以采取以下分类方法。
    • 服务业: 8 Ps : 人员(People)、产品/服务(Product/Service)、价格(Price)、市场促进(Promotion)、政策(Policies)、流程(Process)、程序(Procedures)、地点/厂址/技术(Place/Plant/Technology)。
    • 制造业: 6 Ms 人力(Manpower)、方法(Methods)、量度(Measurement)、机器(Machinery)、材料(Materials),自然力/环境(Mother Nature/Environment)。
    • 利用上述分类逐一寻找问题的原因,如: 人的方面有无可能导致了这个问题?
  4. 找出造成问题的最主要原因。 可以应用Pareto Analysis[帕累托分析] (80/20法则)或 Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]

  5. 以辨识出来的主要原因为标签,为鱼骨图添加分枝。

  6. 继续寻找造成每一分枝问题的具体原因。 问: 这种情况为什么会发生?
  7. 依照此法,在各分枝类别下做更为细致的因果分析。
  8. 对最终形成的鱼骨图进行综合分析。
  9. 根据鱼骨图及分析结果,采取行动。 解决问题,根除造成问题的原因。 对此,一般性的系统性手段为Deming Cycle[戴明循环]RACI[RACI模型]

鱼骨图的优势。 优点

  • 全盘考虑造成问题的所有可能原因,而不是只看那些显著的表面原因。
  • 通过结构性的工作方法,找出造成问题的根本原因。
  • 鼓励团队参与,运用集体智慧。
  • 关注于因果分析,而无不相干的抱怨或争论。
  • 运用有序的、便于阅读的图表格式阐明因果关系。
  • 项目过程中,团队成员个人的学习、理解和分析,亦有利于增强组织的流程知识
  • 辨识信息缺乏、研究不深之处,亦即后续学习、研究领域。

鱼骨图的局限。 缺点

  • 对于极端复杂、因果关系错综复杂的问题效用不大。

鱼骨图的假定。 条件

  • 每一个问题都是由一定数量的原因造成,这些原因本身又是由一些次级原因造成。
  • 区别这些原因与次级原因,是解决问题的第一步,且是非常有用的一步。

参考书: Kaoru Ishikawa - Guide to Quality Control -


鱼骨图论坛
  When Should we Use a Cause Effect Diagram?
In addition to the usage and application areas already mentioned in the summary, the Ishikawa Diagram can be used in the following situations:
- To study a particular problem and find the root cause of it;
- To identify areas of data collec...
     
 
  How to Apply Cause and Effect Analysis in a Processing Plant?
I work in a process plant. I'm always facing breakdowns of machinery or even small defects. People including myself tend to replace immediately the defective part, and restore the machine in service.
I know this is not as good as analyzing and f...
     
 
  Cause and Effect Diagram: Next Steps
It is well known that C&E analysis is a good tool for trouble shooting. My point is there can be many causes while drawing the C&E diagram. Once the diagram is complete how can one go to the root cause? Some people say the  
   
 
  Ishikawa System Limitations
The Ishikawa system is a practical, solid tool for solutions of the quantitative problems. But when getting into subjective or qualitative factors it is a very weak application because of the difficulty in the interpretation of the human facto...
     
 
  Approximate Main Cause
Cause-effect diagram is one of methods determining the approximate main cause not the exact one
Because it depends on the adequateness of are the suggested categories and consequentially, the reasons and sub-reasons....
     
 
  Understanding Demand and Failure Demand
I am an MSc student of Six Sigma for service. For my final project I am evaluating the benefits of DMAIC lean "systems thinking" in a call centre. This involves mapping waste at a high level, by understanding demand and failure demand (things ...
     
 
  The 4Ms Model to Name Ishikawa Main Causes
I checked the internet to find out who and when used the original 4Ms as names for the main cause categories (branches). Unfortunatelly I could not find it, even in papers referring to Ishikawa's book from 1982.
Maybe you know when and where thi...
     
 
  Ishikawa Process in Quality Control and Quality Management
Problem Analysis for quality control/management issues using the Ishikawa process has a high degree of applicability. Its a simple yet effective and is able to generate a fairly accurate solution. Highly recommended for quality improvement programmes...
     
 
  Determining the Relevance of a Problem with an Ishikawa Diagram
I use the fishbone to determine the relevance of a problem. On the upper side of the fishbone I put the positive characteristics (what are the benefits if the problem is solved). On the lower side the negative (what are the cost elements). I rate all...
     
 
  Complex Effect and Cause Relations
Note that Effects and Causes of organizational problems are often interlinked as when a child does not study and the mother scolds him. But the child thinks: because my mother is scolding me every time I don't study.
So we can both say that the ...
     
 
  Solution and Effect Diagram
There exists also an inverted Ishikawa Diagram, with the Solution on the left and a big arrow with branches pointing to the right. The branches show the consequences and effects of the solution. You can use it to show, discuss, analyze what the conse...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 鱼骨图 高级帐户
  Six Sigma and Fishbone Diagram
Is there a relation between six-sigma and the fishbone diagram?...
     
 
  What is the Taguchi Principle?
Has anyone heard of the Taguchi principle and can you please explain what it is in simple terms? What are the benefits in logistics channels?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone Diagram) - Ishikawa 高级帐户
 

How to ApplyThe 5 Whys Method

Definition
The 5 Whys Method was pioneered by Sakichi Toyoda and lately developed by the architect of Toyota Production System Taiichi Ohn...
Usage (application)Definition, Process, Best Practices, Limitations
 
 
 

Approaches to Conducting RCA Activities

One might be tempted to conclude that a completed RCA is the compilation of stakeholder views of "why" a situation occurred.
One can also adopt a...
Usage (application)Root Cause Analysis Methods
 
 
 

3 Potential Categories of (Root) Causes

Latino and Latino consider in a 1999-paper called 'Root Cause Analysis Improving Performance for Bottom Line Results' that causes of problems can be...
Usage (application)Root Cause Analysis, Ishikawa, 8D, TOC
 
 
 

Team-oriented Cause and Effect Analysis

The 8-D problem solving process, is a team-oriented method of problem solving. It applies process and statistical tools as its basis:
- Process t...
Usage (application)Team-based RCA
 
 

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比较: 8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Theory of Constraints[约束理论]  |  Dialectical Inquiry[辩证探询法]  |  Mind Mapping[心智图法]  |  Pyramid Principle[金字塔原则]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]  |  Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Kepner-Tregoe Matrix[KT矩阵]  |  RACI[RACI模型]  |  Gantt Chart[甘特图]


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