Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导] (罗伯特·K.·格林里夫)

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服务为领导之先。 罗伯特·K.·格林里夫的仆人式领导解析。 (1970)

投稿人: Ietze Oostinga MA MGM

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什么是仆人式领导? 释义

仆人式领导(Servant-Leadership)是一种存在于实践中的无私的领导哲学。此类领导者以身作则,乐意成为仆人,以服侍来领导;其领导的结果亦是为了延展其服务功能。 仆人式领导鼓励合作、信任、先见、聆听以及权力的道德用途。 仆人领导不一定取得正式的领导职位。


罗伯特K.格林里夫(1904-1990) 1970年,美国电话电报公司的CEO在《仆人式领导》(The Servant As Leader)一文中首次提出了“仆人式领导”的概念 。 在文章中,格林里夫对仆人式领导做了如下的描述 :

仆人式领导首先是仆人, 他怀有服务为先的美好情操。 他用威信与热望来鼓舞人们,确立领导地位。 他与那些为领导而领导者截然不同,他所渴求的恰是缓和那种不同寻常的领导力、削弱对资源的占有。 对于那些以领导为先的领导者来说,在领导地位、威信以及影响力确立之后,或许才能够谈到服务。 领导为先和服务为先是领导哲学的两个极端。 处于它们之间的,则是混杂着的其他各式人类特性。
这两者的区别凸显出仆人领导关心的是服务,是他人的需求是否得到了满足。 测试领导者是否是仆人领导的最好做法——对其本人来说或许也是最难的做法就是, 去考察其服务对象—— 看看他们是否强壮、聪慧、自由、自主,也想成为助人为乐的公仆? 再看看最为弱势的群体在此领导之下是怎样的境况—— 他们是否也同样获益,或者,至少不再被边缘化,不再被抛弃?

仆人式领导的起源 历史

在世界的东方,古印度的思想家考底利耶(Chanakya/Kautilya)早在写于公元4世纪的名著《政事论》(Arthashastra)中就已经提出: “英明的君王以臣民之乐为乐”。  

在西方,仆人式领导的思想最早可以追溯到耶稣基督,他教导他的门徒说, “你们知道,外邦人有尊为君王者,统治管理他们;有贵为大臣者,操权约束他们。 只是在你们中间,不是这样。 在你们中间,谁愿为大,就必做你们的佣人; 在你们中间,谁愿为首,就必做众人的奴仆。 因为人子来并不是要受人的服侍,乃是要服侍人,並不是要受人的服事,乃是要服事人,并且要舍命作多人的罪赎。” (马可福音第十章第42-45节)
 

仆人式领导的特征。 品质

根据格林里夫(2003)的研究,仆人式领导有以下10项特征:

  1. 聆听(Listening)。 仆人式领导以对方为优先,定意要透过用心聆听, 触及别人的心灵,了解对方的想法和需求。 聆听,并伴以经常性的反思,对仆人式领导来说,非常重要。
  2. 同理心(Empathy)。 仆人式领袖尝试了解与同情对方, 关注的不再是个人荣辱得失,乃是接纳与肯定团队内其他成员付出的劳苦,并予以欣赏。
  3. 医治(Healing)。 疗伤之道是是仆人式领导的强大武器,能够帮助他们跨越过渡转型、重组整合的各个艰难时期。 仆人式领导的一项强大之力就在于他能够帮助他人以及他自己疗伤,一位经历过伤痛、并已痊愈的领袖正是人们所期待的。
  4. 醒觉(Awareness)。 觉醒、尤其是自我醒觉是仆人式领导的另一显著特征,他不会陶醉于过去或现在的成功,他知道有些时候需要被挑战,受搅动,才不会安于现状。
  5. 说服(Persuasion)。 仆人式领导不是仗着职权或威信来统御,乃是以“晓之以理,动之以情,析之佐据”的说式,劝服别人认同计划或工作,让人心服口服,而不是勉强为之。
  6. 概念化(Conceptualization)。 仆人式领袖敢于发梦,对他来说,再过夸张的梦想亦有成为现实的可能。 尽管他的想象力天马行空,但在处理问题时,却脚踏实地,他能够巧妙地平衡“概念化”的意向与日常事务的现实情境,两者皆为必需。
  7. 先见(foresight)。 人非圣贤孰能无过,仆人式领导也会犯错误,但他却能够从实践中不断汲取教训,在行动中做出反思,从而获得对未来行为决策的先见。
  8. 管家(Stewardship)。 人们所求于管家的,是要其有衷心。仆人式领导就怀有管家的衷心,为组织内成员服务,为组织所处的社区服务。
  9. 委身于他人成长(Commitment to the Growth of People)。 仆人式领导用心帮助组织内的每一位成员成长,使人更强壮、更聪慧、更自由、更自主。
  10. 构建社群(Building Community)。 仆人式领导不会“一将功成万骨枯”,他要构建生生不息、基业长存的社群,并工作、服务于其中。

仆人式领导的优势。 优点

  • 仆人式领导是一种长期的工作、生活发展变革之道,它更能够激发社群内部的积极变化。
  • 仆人式领导常会被拿来与变革型领导(Transformational Leadership)做比较,后者亦重视上下协作。 当二者均显示出对被领导者的深深关心时,仆人式领导更突显其服务特性, 而变革型领导的诉求则是被领导者服务于组织目标。 比较: Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]。 领导重心在组织还是被领导者,是变革型领导与仆人式领导的分水岭。

仆人式领导的局限。 缺点

  • 它不是速效药, 不能看到立竿见影的效果。
  • 易被视作“软弱”, 听得太多、同理心有余可能会导致优柔寡断、缺少主见。

参考书: Robert K. Greenleaf (1998) - Insights on leadership: Service, stewardship, spirit, and servant-leadership (L. C. Spears, Ed.) -

参考书: Robert K. Greenleaf (2002) - Servant-leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness (L. C. Spears, Ed.) [中译本《仆人领导学:仆人领导的理论与实践》,台湾启示出版社,2004年7月] -

参考书: Robert K. Greenleaf (2003) - The servant-leader within: A transformative path (H. Beazley, Julie Beggs, & Larry C. Spears, Eds.) -


仆人式领导论坛
  Egalitarianism and Servant Leadership
This topic is so near and dear to me that I just wanted to share following tidbit with visitors.
Mr. Greenleaf referenced the bible numerous times in his dialogue while creating the Servant Leader theory. Yet, religion, church and education stru...
     
 
  The Servant-Leadership Model Should Be Taught to Anyone in a Position of Authority
I believe that each CEO, political leader and anyone in a position of authority should be taught the servant leadership concept.
Furthermore, I believe that people may respect another person's position of authority for several reasons, but for o...
     
 
  The Leader is an Enabler
Within the context of the Mission-Men-Self ethos of servant leadership, the Leader enables those around him or her to transcend their personal expectations as a means for achieving the common purpose.
This may require the deflation of the ego-ba...
     
 
  Influence of Culture on Servant Leadership
In an article, Dierendock discusses how culture might influence servant leadership, mentioning two cultural dimensions (Hofstede) that (positively) affect servant leadership within organizations.
1. Humane ...
     
 
  Followers Empower Servant Leaders
Whether paid or volunteer, cooperation is a choice followers make. The better the leaders serves the followers, the more the followers will empower the leader to lead them. Followers let us lead. They may perform at a level that is expected of them d...
     
 
  Quotes on Servant Leadership and Servanthood
Here are some good quoatations I collected on servant leadership:
- To manage, one must lead. To lead, one must understand the work [and the people] that he and his [team] are responsible for. Deming [Out of the crisis]
- To understand th...
     
 
  Serving and Educating
A leader should begin by the aphorism to serve.
This he integrates by developing character and responsibility in himself and his associates.
He seeks to actively listen first before doing the talking.
Further, since corporate bu...
     
 
  Is Servant Leadership a Seperate Style?
I'm wondering whether servant leadership can be considered a leadership style of its own, or is it a portion of every leadership style that exists......
     
 
  Servant Leaders can Turn into Manipulators
Humans are intrinsically selfish, power seekers. And even when one starts out to seek the welfare of others, sometimes in the end one turns out to be a manipulator.
It is the "pedagogue of the oppressed" (Paulo Freire). The oppressed nor...
     
 
  Do not Confuse Kindness and Humility of Servant Leaders with Weakness
Kindness and humility are often confused for weakness in today's competitive world....
     
 
  Servant Leadership at the Top Position
For me this way of leadership is generally the best, but it sometimes depends of the position. The best way to serve people is by being in the top position. The efficiency is going up with high responsability in the organization. Being in the ...
     
 
  What is Competent Leadership?
I believe competent leadership is when the people you are leading reach their goal and exclaim: "We did it!"....
     
 
  Servant Leadership Paradox
The paradox, or seemingly contradicting statement of servant leadership, in the context of leadership and management, can only be the idea You cant serve, if you lead. this may look correct at the start, although, when focused on, one can f...
     
 
  Servant Leadership Blended with Quantum Leadership and Diversity
I have discovered that diversity is "primus inter pares - first among equals." Women and minorities have and will continue to cause structure / hierachy changes in organizations and institutitons.
I wish more corporate board rooms and news media...
     
 
  Needed! Servant Leaders for the Corporate World
Too often we see corporates turning to the "new buzz" in corporate management concepts almost like cows in a herd.
Hence, we see a lot of concepts such as servant leadership being adapted to suit the corporate strategy whilst at the same time ke...
     
 
  Difference between Style and Leadership
If any can answer my question, which is, what is the difference between "style" and "leadership?" For example, a charismatic leader or charismatic style....
     
 

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最佳实践 - 仆人式领导 高级帐户
  Examples of Great Servant Leaders
In studying the bible, the most concise history of the world and our existence, it becomes evident that the most amazing example of the Servant Leadership model is the servant leadership of the son of God, Jesus Christ.
Who, even though h...
     
 
  Servant vs Charismatic Leaders
Are Servant-Leadership and Charismatic Leadership opposites?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Servant-Leadership 高级帐户
 

Write a Personal Mission Statement

Covey wrote this pearl of wisdom in his book Seven Habits: "The key to the ability to change is a change...
Usage (application)Establish focus on who you want to be in your life...
 
 
 

Why can Servant Leaders have such Strong Influence?

French and Raven have distinguished 6 bases of social power (excluding a 7th one: connectio...
Usage (application)Understanding the Mechanisms behind Servant Leadership
 
 
 

Exactly How Does the Servant-leadership Lead to Need Satisfaction of the Followers?

The main distinction of servant-leadership from other leadership theories is the focus on followers needs instead of focusing on the personal interes...
Usage (application)Servant Leadership, Organizational Justice Satisfaction
 
 

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比较: Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Situational Leadership[情境领导]


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