Emotional Intelligence

Knowledge Center


Non-cognitive aspects of intelligence. Explanation of Emotional Intelligence. Robert Thorndike ['37], David Wechsler ['40], Howard Gardner ['83], Salovey & Mayer ['90], Daniel Goleman. ['95]


  1. Summary
  2. Forum
  3. Best Practices
  4. Expert Tips
  5. Resources
  6. Print

Emotional Intelligence history

When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence, they initially focused on cognitive aspects, such as memory and problem-solving. However, some researchers recognized the importance of non-cognitive aspects early on:

  • Robert Thorndike was writing about social intelligence in 1937,

  • David Wechsler defined intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1958, p. 7). Already in 1940 Wechsler referred to non-intellective as well as intellective elements (Wechsler, 1940), by which he meant affective, personal, and social factors. Furthermore, already in 1943 Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective abilities are essential for predicting ones ability to succeed in life.

  • Howard Gardner began to write about multiple intelligence in 1983. He proposed that intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences and the type of intelligence (typically measured by IQ and related tests) are equally important.

  • Salovey and Mayer actually coined the term emotional intelligence in 1990. They described emotional intelligence as "a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking and action" (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Salovey and Mayer also initiated a research program intended to develop valid measures of emotional intelligence and to explore its significance.

In doing the research for his first book, Daniel Goleman became aware of Salovey and Mayers work in the early 1990s. Being trained as a psychologist at Harvard, where he worked with David McClelland, Goleman wrote the popular bestseller "Emotional Intelligence" (1995), in which he offered the first ' proof'  that emotional and social factors are important.

Five Domains of Emotional Intelligence

Goleman in 1995 agrees with Salovey's Five Main Domains of Emotional Intelligence (p. 43)

  • Knowing one's emotions. Self-awareness, recognizing a feeling while it happens.

  • Managing emotions. The ability of handling feelings so they are appropriate.

  • Motivating oneself. Marshalling emotions in the service of a goal.

  • Recognizing emotions in others. Empathy, social awareness.

  • Handling relationships. Skill in managing emotions in others.

Four domains of Emotional Intelligence

More recently, Goleman favors only Four Domains of EI. The 4 domains have 19 categories, as described in his 2002-book "Primal Leadership". 2 extra categories were added by the Hay Group:

  • Self-awareness (Emotional Self-Awareness. Accurate Self-Assessment and Self Confidence)

  • Self-management (Emotional Self-Control. Transparency (Trustworthiness). Adaptability. Achievement Orientation. Initiative. Optimism. Conscientiousness)

  • Social awareness (Empathy. Organizational Awareness. Service Orientation)

  • Relationship management (Inspirational Leadership. Influence. Developing Others. Change Catalyst. Conflict Management. Building Bonds. Teamwork and Collaboration. Communication)

An important thing to understand is that - according to Goleman - these EI competencies are not innate talents. They are learned abilities.

IQ or EI?

According to some scientists, IQ by itself is not a very good predictor of job performance. Hunter and Hunter (1984) estimated that at best IQ accounts for about 25 percent of the variance. Sternberg (1996) has pointed out that studies vary and that 10 percent may be a more realistic estimate. In some studies, IQ accounts for as little as 4 percent of the variance. In a recent meta-analysis examining the correlation and predictive validity of EI when compared to IQ or general mental ability, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) found IQ to be a better predictor of work and academic performance than EI. However, when it comes to the question of whether a person will become a "star performer" (in the top ten percent, however such performance is appropriately assessed) within that role, or be an outstanding leader, IQ may be a less powerful predictor than emotional intelligence (Goleman 1998, 2001, 2002).

IQ and EI: pure types

According to Goleman, IQ and EI should not be regarded as competencies with an opposite direction. They are rather separate competencies. People with a high IQ but low EI (or the opposite) are, despite the stereotypes, relatively rare. There is a correlation between IQ and some aspects of EI. The stereotypes (pure types) are:

  • (Pure) High-IQ male. He is typified - no surprise - by a wide range of intellectual interest and abilities. He is ambitious and productive. Predictable and dogged. And untroubled by concerns about himself. He also tends to be critical and condescending. Fastidious and inhibited. Uneasy with sexuality and sensual experience. Unexpressive and detached. And emotionally bland and cold.

  • (Pure) High-EI male. He is socially poised. Outgoing and cheerful. Not prone to fearfulness or worried rumination. He has a notable capacity for commitment to people or causes, for taking responsibility, and for having an ethical outlook. He is sympathetic and caring in his relationships. His emotional life is rich, but appropriate. He is comfortable with himself, others, and the social universe he lives in.

  • (Pure) High-IQ female. She has the expected intellectual confidence. Is fluent in expressing her thoughts. Values intellectual matters. And has a wide range of intellectual and aesthetic interests. She tends to be introspective. Prone to anxiety, rumination, and guilt. And hesitates to express her anger openly.

  • (Pure) High-EI female. She tend to be assertive and expresses her feelings directly. And feels positive about herself. Life holds meaning for her. She is outgoing and gregarious. And expresses her feelings appropriately. She adapts well to stress. Her social poise lets her easily reach out to new people. She is comfortable enough with herself to be playful, spontaneous, and open to sensual experience. She rarely feels guilty, or sinks into rumination.

Assessing and measuring Emotional Intelligence

Instruments used for measuring Emotional Intelligence

  • EQ-I (Bar-On, 1997): a self-report instrument to  assess those personal qualities that enabled some people to possess better emotional well-being than others.

  • Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1998):  a test of ability where the test-taker performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess the persons ability to perceive, identify, understand, and work with emotion.

  • Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) (Goleman, 1998):  a 360 degree instrument, where people evaluate the individuals within an organization (Individual Feedback Reports). Or the organization as a whole (Work Force Audits). These audits can provide an organizational profile for any size group within the company. The Emotional Competence Inventory works with the 19/21 competencies described above (See under Four Domains of EI).

Book: Daniel Goleman - Emotional Intelligence -

Emotional Intelligence Forum
  Shapers/Influencers of Emotional Intelligence
To what extent do you think emotional intelligence can be influenced by the following:
1. The level of the relationship that exist between individuals?
2. The immediate environment?
3. The personal mood?...
  How you Should Manage Yourself (Drucker)
Peter Drucker (1999) emphasises several components of effective self-management. The underlying principle of one-own’s self management is identification and development of one’s STRENGTHS instead of focusing on improvement of one’s weaknesses. Giving...
  How can EQ and IQ be Combined?
Of course, EQ and IQ can be combined in one individual. But how can we assess the extent to an individual is successful in achieving this?
The potential of an individual can briefly be described by the parameters of EQ and IQ. In actual life the...
  Mayer's Ability Model of Emotional Intelligence. Comparison Goleman
The Ability Model of Mayer of Emotional Intelligence (EI) versus Goleman.
Mayer has been the first who defined the concept of EI. After that, many contributors including Goleman have developed different definitions of EI and used different appro...
  3 Approaches Towards Emotional Intelligence
In an article “Human Abilities: Emotional Intelligence” Mayer, Roberts and Barsade describe the theoretical approaches to Emotional Intelligence (EI), distinguishing the Specific-Ability Approach, the Integrative-Model Approach and the Mixed-M...
  EI and Sensitivity for Subconscious Mind
Has EI anything to do with being more sensitive or tolerant into the subconscious mind of other persons?...
  By-Products of Emotional Intelligence
One's own emotional intelligence culminates in personal traits like "vision" through which one develops other by-products like "intution", "introspection" and "intepretation".
These by-products enable one to effectively use the emotional intelli...
  Categories of Emotional Intelligence
Typification is helpful, but up to a point. Every individual is unique. In fact, I've seen people with admirable cognitive ability displaying equally admirable social skills and, of course, vice versa. Categorization may help to understand a person. ...
  Emotional Intelligence within Organisations
I consider it very important and essential for organisations to recognise the importance of EI and develop it amongst their management and leaders.
This enable such organisations to be more successful and efficient in their undertakings.
  Cleaning our Emotions
The important thing about emotional intelligence is self awareness. It starts with knowing oneself, and with cleaning all those feelings that have blurred our most beautiful feelings of love, compassion, happiness.
Once we clear up those negativ...
  Some Level of EQ and IQ Either Way is Needed
A very intelligent person (high IQ) might be great to have around.
But he has to have some emotional capacity (high EQ) to assert a better coping abilities to life's daily wiles... Either at work, home and family, friends and community at large....
  The Benefits of Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
Emotional Intelligence skills influence people to self awareness, self managing, awareness of other people and relations managing.
These abilities result in a successful position in the family, job and society. In fact Emotional Intel...
  EQ / EI Questionaire
Where can i find an inventory or questionnaire on EI / EQ?...
  Emotional Intelligence - Better Predictor of Success then IQ
Studies have shown that there is a direct co-relation between emotional intelligence and success in real life. A high IQ is not necessarily a predictor of success....
  Emotional Intelligence and Conflict Management Skills
I am looking for material that outlines the relationship or link between an individual's EI and his or her proficiency in handling conflict in the workplace....

Emotional Intelligence Special Interest Group

Special Interest Group

Emotional Intelligence Education & Events

Find Trainings, Seminars and Events

Best Practices - Emotional Intelligence Premium
  How to Moderate the Effect of Negative Moods on Your (Team's) Performance
You and your employees experience different moods. These moods can be roughly divided into positive and negative moods. Moods are important, because they influence the level of performance at work. Negative moods lead...
  The Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Leadership
It is well known nowadays that leadership is connected with emotions. Leaders who are able to manage their emotions and who show affinity towards employees are often seen as good leaders.

George (2000) mentions five points all containin...
  Intelligence of the Heart
I shall begin with some some real life incidents that happened to me.

Incident 1: the girl standing up for her friend.
One day I was traveling in a general compartment of a train. To be precise it was the 2.30PM train to Chennai from...
  Soft Skills and Emotional Intelligence
What are the differences between Soft Skills (SS) and Emotional Intelligence (EI)? What is the meaning and scope of the term SS? What categories of soft skills can we distinguish?...
  Emotional Intelligence versus IQ
I think we can link EQ with wisdom and IQ with knowledge. One can be knowledgeable with others knowledge but one cannot be wise with others wisdom.
That effectively leaves EQ to the genes and IQ to the learning after birth. ...
  Emotional Intelligence and Age
Does Emotional Intelligence increase or decrease when we grow older? Or is age irrelevant?...
  Cross-cultural Validity of Emotional Intelligence
To what extent is the Emotional Intelligence model valid cross-culturally? It appears EI derived out of Western thinking. I am looking for recent papers or articles about this....
  (How) Can I improve my Emotional Intelligence?
Can we improve our EI? How can I learn to be more emotional intelligent, and how can I unlearn ineffective habits I may have?...

Expert Tips - Emotional Intelligence Premium

Theory of Multiple Intelligences

In 1983, Howard Gardner proposed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. According to Gardner there are a wide variety of cognitive abilities (A ...
Usage (application): Skills Development

The Brain's Lymbic System is an Open-loop System. The Phenomenon of Mirroring

A closed-loop system is self-regulating, it is not influenced by things outside of the system.
An open-loop system depends on external sources to...
Usage (application): EI Awareness

How to Develop Your / Someone's Emotional Intelligence?

In order to develop Emotional Intelligence, Steve Hein suggests adopting following habits:
- Become emotionally literate. Label your feelings rat...
Usage (application): Emotional Intelligence Development, Coaching, Mentoring

How to Assess Your / Someone's Social Intelligence and Leadership Skills

In their article "Social Intelligence and the Biology of Leadership" (HBR, September 2008), Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis argue that a more rela...
Usage (application): Social Intelligence, Leadership Development

Limitations of Emotional Intelligence

Some significant limitations of Emotional Intelligence mentioned by academics as well as professional are as follows:
- In contrast to IQ tests, ...
Usage (application): EI Consulting, Coaching, Mentoring, Measuring Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Style and Leadership Performance

Goleman made another contribution to the study of successful leadership. This represented a deeper analysis of earlier research on the effect of Emoti...
Usage (application): Leadership Coaching, Understanding the Mechanisms behind Leadership

How to Develop Better Relational Skills?

Although it is not necessary to be interested in or skilled at all four dimensions of relational work in order to succeed in your job, it is important...
Usage (application): Human Resources, Leadership

Thorndike on Intelligence 1920

E.L. Thorndike (1920: Intelligence and its uses) distinguished between three distinct types of intelligence:
1. Abstract or scholastic Intelligen...
Usage (application): 3 distinct types

Reasons and Remedies to Dissonance in Leaders

In today’s constantly changing, challenging and demanding environment, it is hard for leaders to remain effective and resonant (see here what Goleman ...
Usage (application): Primal Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, Stress, Cognitive Dissonance, Resonance

Bar-On Measure of EQ 1985

R. Bar-On (1985: The development of an operational concept of psychological well-being) mentions 5 interdependent dimensions:
1. Intrapersonal Usage (application): Measuring EQ

Resources - Emotional Intelligence Premium

Facial Expressions

Study by Hillary Anger Elfenbein presents data on training to improve the accuracy of judging facial expressions of emotion, a core component of emoti...
Usage (application): Emotion Recognition

EI: What it is and Why it Matters

History of the Emotional Intelligence concept as an area of research. Description how it has come to be defined and measured. By Cary Cherniss....
Usage (application): History, Current Interest, Value of EI

Applying EI to a Job Interview

10 ways to apply Ei to a job interview. By M.Peer Mohamed Sardhar...
Usage (application): Job Interviews

22 Guidelines for Best Practices

22 guidelines for best practice in the area of training and developing social and emotional competencies at work These guidelines are based on an exh...
Usage (application): Training EI at Work

Emotional Intelligence

Study by M. Afzalur Rahim a.o. investigates the relationships of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: self-awareness, self-regulation, motiv...
Usage (application): Conflict Management

Emotional Intelligence - A Leader’s Primer

Presentation on meaning of 4 EI Competencies (Self-Awareness,
Self-Management, Social Awareness, Relationship Management)
for leaders. By To...
Usage (application): Emotional Intelligence

Interview Goleman on Emotional Intelligence

According to Daniel Goleman emotional intelligence refers to how well we handle ourselves and relationships.There are four domains:
1. Self Aware...
Usage (application): Introduction to Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence: Job Performance and Career Success

Presentation about Emotional Intelligence includes the following sections:
1. Background
1.1 Old versus New Career Paradigms
1.2 Leader...
Usage (application): Emotional Intelligence, Management Development, Career Management, Career Assessments

The Influence of Emotions and Moods on Decision-Making and Entrepreneurship

This presentation is about emotions in decision-making, thereby paying specific attention to Emotional Intelligence
1. Key questions
2. Emot...
Usage (application): Decision Making, Emotional Intelligence, Entrepreneurship, Cognitive Bias

Howard Gardner's Eight Intelligences

A presentation about Gardner, one of the four authors mentioned as inventors of emotional intelligence. A more detailed description of his eight inte...
Usage (application): Intelligences Research

NLP: The 6 Neurological Levels

Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) is used increasingly by businesses and individuals in HR, marketing, sales and organizational development
Usage (application): 6 layers to view at the reality of a person or issue

Advice to Improve Your Emotional Intelligence

First five top tips out of 55 for developing emotional intelligence. By Doug Constant. Remaining 50 tips available for $4,77...
Usage (application): Improve Your Emotional Intelligence

Common Negative Feelings

Comprehensive list of around 100 negative feelings in 6 categories....
Usage (application): EI Education

Recognizing Stress in Yourself and Your People

What is stress?
Stress is a feeling of being overloaded, wound-up and worried.

How can you recognize stress in yourself or in your emp...
Usage (application): Coping with Stress, Avoiding Stress, Emotional Intelligence, Stress Management

Practical Communication Tips for Managers

As manager you need to combine professional expertise and experience with specific character traits, interpersonal and communication skills. This vide...
Usage (application): Management Skills, Leadership Skills, Management Development, Leadership Development, Situational Leadership

Managing Psychological Well-being in Workplaces

This presentation elaborates on the developing of efficient workplaces through mental well-being. The presentation includes the following sections: Usage (application): Organizational Commitment, Performance Management, Stress Management, Workplace Management

Peer and Co-worker Relationships

This presentation is about the relationship between peer and co-workers, and includes the following sections:
1. Nature of Co-worker Relationship...
Usage (application): Relationship Management, Emotional Intelligence, Coaching, Emotional Work, Relationship at Work, Employee Relationships

Emotions In Finance and Economics

Detailed presentation about the role of emotions in making decisions. The presentation includes the following sections:
1. Emotions and decisions...
Usage (application): Decision Making, Behavioral Economics, Behavioral Finance


Emotional Intelligence


Emotional Competence


Emotional Intelligence


Emotional Competence


Emotional Intelligence


Emotional Competence


Emotional Intelligence


Emotional Competence

Compare with Emotional Intelligence: Cultural Intelligence  |  Whole Brain Model  |  Johari Window  |  Attribution Theory  |  Leadership Styles  |  Framing  |  ERG Theory  |  Path-Goal Theory  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work  |  Competing Values Framework  |  Hierarchy of Needs  |  Six Change Approaches  |  Seven Habits  |  PAEI  |  Action Learning  |  Team Management Profile

Return to Management Hub: Communication & Skills  |  Ethics & Responsibility  |  Human Resources  |  Leadership

More Management Methods, Models and Theory

Special Interest Group Leader

You here

About 12manage | Advertising | Link to us | Privacy | Terms of Service
Copyright 2016 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Last updated: 21-10-2016. All names tm by their owners.