Theory of Constraints[约束理论]
(Goldratt)

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约束管理。 Eliyahu Goldratt的Theory of Constraints[约束理论]解析。

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Theory of Constraints[约束理论] -瓶颈 Herbie

你读过《目标》这本最著名的企业管理小说么? 还记得书中的Herbie么?那个总是慢慢腾腾,让其他的童子军们大伤脑筋的小男孩。 Eliyahu Goldratt独创的约束理论(TOC,Theory of Constraints)真实地来源于这位以色列科学家对“如何思考”的思考。 在他的一系列的著作中,他详细地阐述了他的思考方法、流程及应用。
 

约束理论中的因果关系

约束理论的核心是承认因果关系。 比较: Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]。 约束理论的思维流程教会我们在实践中如何把因果关系和我们的经验、我们获取知识的直觉融合到一起。 约束理论是一种可验证哲学, 通过正确的思考,我们就能够更好地理解我们的世界; 通过更好的理解,我们就能够实现提高。
 

组织是一张复杂的网,人员、设备、方法、材料和标准尽在其中, 作为组织管理人员,整天要面对如此的细微和复杂,实在是太糟糕了。 这还没完,你还得再加入动态的复杂成分——不断变化着的顾客、供应商、生产员工、规章制度,等等。现在,你就得到了每一个管理团队每日所面临的挑战的完整画面。


为了应付这些挑战,传统上,管理者习惯于将他们的组织化整为零,成为更多的管理单元。 目的是实现每一个单元的绩效最大化。 他们认为,大组织的绩效提高等于各个小单元绩效提高的总合。


错!非常不幸,这个如意算盘敲错了。 约束理论认为,组织内大多数变量对组织的整体绩效只会发生微乎其微的影响, 与此同时,有那么几个变量,甚至可能就只有一个变量,却会对组织的整体绩效发生重大影响。 这个变量就是组织的“约束变量”, 你可以把它比作一根链条上的最薄弱的环节。 比较: Gantt Chart[甘特图]


约束理论法的步骤。 方法

如果你打算实现既定的大部分目标的话,你就必须:

  1. 找出你的约束变量。
  2. 集中于这个约束变量。 企业首先要知道自己的目标是什么,实现这些目标的必要条件又是什么。 然后必须要找出限制企业目标实现的约束变量(一个或多个)。
  3. 自始自终,都要关注这个约束变量。 这是一个不断提高的过程。

    1. 找出约束变量。

    2. 作用于约束变量。

    3. 一切其他运作都要服从于提高约束变量这个大局。

    4. 2、3步过后,如果需要的话,对约束变量投入更多能量与资源,使其不再具有约束能力,满足组织发展的需求。

    5. 回到第一步,继续寻找新的约束变量,但不要成为惯性,否则惯性也会成为组织发展的约束力。

约束理论的应用

  • 生产制造 - 参考书: "The Goal" by Goldratt -

  • 分销与供应链管理 - 参考书: "It's Not Luck?" by Goldratt -

  • 市场营销 - 参考书: "Necessary But Not Sufficient" by Goldratt [中译本《仍然不足够》电子工业出版社,2006] -

  • 项目管理 - 参考书: "Critical Chain" by Goldratt [中译本《关键链》电子工业出版社,2006] -

  • 理论研究 - 参考书: "Theory of Constraints" by Goldratt -


约束理论论坛
  Theory of Constraints Applied to Bonus Payments
Hi everyone, I guess we all agree that if we want to change things we need to use "system thinking"!
There is a "but"; at my factory in the (instrumental shop) workers get paid bonuses for how many parts they produce. They use CAD drawings. Som...
     
 
  Theory of Constraints in Mining
Hi All, I am currently pursuing a project on the application of TOC in Underground Coal Mining in Australia. I am looking for ideas, best practices, case studies or other resources that could be of help in this regard. Please experts, help me out her...
     
 
  What's the Difference Between Constraints and Bottlenecks?
Constraint and bottleneck are different concepts:
- A constraint is a restriction of a process, it might be, equipment, people, specifications, materials, enviroment, policies, suppliers.
Being...
     
 
  Theory of Constraints in Education / Quality Assurance?
The Theory of Constraints has been applied in several areas such as the manufacturing environments, distribution and supply chain, marketing and project management.
I am interested in the application of TOC quality assurance, especially in high...
     
 
  New Book on Theory of Constraints & Deming Methodology
In 'Sechel: Logic, Language and Tools to Manage Any Organization as a Network' (January 2011), Dr. Domenico Lepore, co-author of 'Deming and Goldratt: the Decalogue' assesses the shortcomings of traditional, hierarchical organizations and proposes a ...
     
 
  Big Box Retail - TOC Application at Store Level
I'm looking for any examples of Theory of Contraints at the store level. Such as for Home Depot, Lowe's, Walmart. Success stores, logical trees, clouds, etc....
     
 
  Theory of Constraints - PQ Game and GSIM Game
I have been using GSIM ad PQ games regularly to teach TOC fundamentals and concepts to my students in Business schools.
Please use both games to understand and strategize how to generate operating cash flows at much faster rate....
     
 
  The Dice Game by Goldrat
I am using Goldrat's dice game in my classes. It is very helpful for the students to understand variation and the 6 sides of a dice. Is there anybody using different variations?...
     
 
  Impediments Analysis?
What is impediments analysis? Any help, please?
Editor: An inpediment is something that impedes; a hindrance or obstruction, an obstacle, a bottleneck....
     
 
  Current Reality Tree
A useful tool that Goldratt uses to identify bottlenecks is the Current Reality Tree (CRT).
Similar to a Root Cause Analysis, a current reality tree is a statement of an underlying core problem and...
     
 
  Neural Network In SCM?
Hi, (how) can the concept of Neural Networks be applied in the world of Supply Chain for managing the flow of orders between upstream and downstream systems?...
     
 
  Throughput Accounting
It is important to notice that the theory of constraints has given birth to a very important management accounting tool; throughput accounting. Throughput accounting challenges conventional wisdom in the management accounting area....
     
 
  Quote by Eliyahu Goldratt
An expert is not someone that gives you the answer, it is someone that asks you the right question....
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory of Constraints 高级帐户
 

Dealing with Changing Constraints

Often Management and Business Consultants reported the feelings that Constraints are continuously changing over the space and time. These types of sit...
Usage (application)Theory of Constraints
 
 
 

What are Constraints?

A Constraint is something that limits an organization in reaching a higher level of performance. Generally, constraints determine the upper bor...
Usage (application)Theory of Constraints Scientific Approach
 
 
 

Constraints in the Business World

In the business world constraints can be categorized in three main different types.
1. Physical Constraints: those resources that physical...
Usage (application)Practical Examples of Constraints
 
 
 

Three Dimensions of the Theory of Constraints (TOC)

There are basically three dimensions of the theory of constraints: mindset, measurements and methodology .
1. Mindset: what...
Usage (application)Teaching the Theory of Constraints
 
 
 

Drum-Buffer-Rope Methodology and Time Buffers

The Theory of Constraints is also built on the understanding that the combined effect of variation and interdependence destroys the flow. That's why i...
Usage (application)Buffer Management
 
 
 

Time Buffers in Theory of Constraints

Production Activities are characterized by perturbations that derive from casual events such as out of order machines, deleting of customer ord...
Usage (application)TOC Approach to Variability
 
 
 

Buffer Management in Theory of Constraints

What is the right size of the Time Buffer? According to TOC, the higher is the variability the bigger should be the Time Buffer. In business en...
Usage (application)TOC Approach to Variability
 
 
 

3 Potential Categories of (Root) Causes

Latino and Latino consider in a 1999-paper called 'Root Cause Analysis Improving Performance for Bottom Line Results' that causes of problems can be...
Usage (application)Root Cause Analysis, Ishikawa, 8D, TOC
 
 
 

How to tackle Constraints?

Over the years, TOC School of Thought developed a set of tools to tackle constraints of different nature and in the different environments whe...
Usage (application)Practical Tools from Theory of Constraints
 
 
 

Theory of Constraints Key Indicators

In TOC vision any action made by an organization is valued in respect of its impact on the final goal of the organization itself: making money....
Usage (application)Reaching The Final Goal
 
 
 

Inventory

To analyze the amount of a company cash out- flow TOC raised the following question: how much money is invested in a company? The answer is Invento...
Usage (application)Estimate Investiments
 
 
 

Throughput Accounting

From the disruptive Theory of Constraints descends a new Management Accounting methodology known as Throughput Accounting. This methodology, ba...
Usage (application)TOC Controlling System
 
 
 

Throughput Concept

According to the TOC Measurement System, the first question every manager should answer is: how many profits does a company generate? The answe...
Usage (application)Estimate Profits
 
 
 

What is an Accurate Finance System in the TOC Perspective?

TOC is a methodology and a set of processes to maximize a systems ROI/ROCE equation.
By employing solutions that identify, exploit and manage a ...
Usage (application)Finance
 
 

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比较: Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]  |  Gantt Chart[甘特图]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Pyramid Principle[金字塔原则]  |  Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]  |  Kepner-Tregoe Matrix[KT矩阵]  |  Crisis Management[危机管理]  |  Game Theory[博奕论]  |  Real Options[实物期权]  |  Dialectical Inquiry[辩证探询法]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Plausibility Theory[可能性理论]  |  Mind Mapping[心智图法]


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