Grundval för Makt och Inflytande

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Identifiera källor till makt(inflytande). Förklaring av Bases of Social Power (Sociala maktbaser) av French and Raven.

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Grundval för makt och inflytandeProcesserna kring inflytande och makt är genomträngande, komplexa, och ofta maskerade i vårt samhälle. Bases of Social Power av French and Raven är en teori som identifierar de fem (sex) grunder eller källor till socialt (organisatoriskt) inflytande och makt:

  1. Belöningsmakt. Denna form baseras på den uppfattade möjligheten att få positiva följder eller att ta bort de negativa.

  2. Tvingande makt. Detta är den uppfattade möjligheten att tvinga eller straffa de som inte inordnar sig med dina idéer eller krav.

  3. Legitimerad makt (organisatorisk fullmakt). Denna form baseras på uppfattningen att någon har rätten/befogenheterna att föreskriva beteendekriterier vid val eller utnämning till en anvsarsroll. Även kallad Normativ makt. Jämför: Organisationskarta.

  4. Referensmakt. Detta är makt genom att andra associerar sig med den som innehar makten.

  5. Kunskaps makt. Denna typ baseras på att ha särskiljande kunskap, expertis, kapacitet eller kunskaper.

  6. Som i 5 ovan: Informationsmakt. Denna form är baserad på att kontrollera informationen som efterfrågas av andra för att nå ett viktigt mål.

Teorin kring de sociala maktbaserna (Bases of Social Power) utgår från antagandet att makt och inflytande gäller förbindelser mellan åtminstone två parter. Teorin förordar att reaktionen hos den mottagande parten är ett mer användbart fokus som förklaring av fenomenet av socialt inflytande och makt.


French and Raven undersökte effekten av makt som kunde härledas från de olika baserna av dragning och motstånd till bruket av makt. Lockelsen och motståndet är mottagarens känsla för den som använder medlet makt. De gör slutsatsen att bruket av makt i de olika maktbaserna har olika följder.

Till exempel den Tvingande makten minskar typiskt attraktionen och orsakar ett stort motstånd. Medans däremot Belöningsmakt förhöjer attraktionen och, skapar minimala nivåer av motstånd.


French and Raven gjorde också den slutsatsen att, "ju mer legitimt tvånget [uppfattades att vara], ju mindre kommer den att förorsaka motstånd och minskad uppmärksamhet".


Grundval för Makt Forumet
  The Role of Influence in Leadership
Influence refers to the power of an individual to impel another person to action by either intangible or indirect means. Therefore it plays an important role in leadership. Kaufman (2011) developed six principles of influence that explain in wh...
     
 
  About Participative Power
- Common goals
- Clear vision
- Constant communication
- Everyone is involved
- Consensus (for important decisions)....
     
 
  Composition of Power Bases
I think several power bases can be required in one individual, and suggest to focus on the composition of all power bases in making an all round powerful person/leader, e.g. expert power 40%, reward power 10%, coercive power 2% etc. No ...
     
 
  What is Power? Definitions
French and Raven detail varieties of social power, but what is 'power', is it Foucault's action that requires two consenting parties - where there is the possibility of an individual decision and personal choice - or is 'power' more Weber
     
 
  About Information Power
I personally believe that information power is the most influential form of power. All other powers especially legitimate power needs to feed off of information or even expert power in order to sustain itself. Once the information stops flowin...
     
 
  Should See Power Differently...
The word "power" acts as deterrent for most of the employees to perform and leaves a negative and rebellious feeling in them. Power should be seen as a facilitating tool to influence people. And as a tool that there are people to fall back ...
     
 
  With Power Comes Responsibility!
With real power comes responsibility. You need to exercise it with an objective in mind. Power without responsibility will make you answerable one day!...
     
 
  Mind Power - Power of Mind
Every one has power of mind, of which only around 17% is active. We need to activate the unconscious mind power to energize. Ince we succeed to utilize our mind power we will become a great performer.
Any organization needs persons who ca...
     
 
  Synergistic Power is the Strongest
All power is secondary to synergistic power.
The mathematics of synergistic power is this: 1 + 1 = 11!
There is a proverb that states: 'Plans fail for lack of counsel, but with many advisers they succeed.' - Proverbs 15:22....
     
 
  Bases of Social Power: What's Common?
What do these Bases of Social Power have in common?...
     
 
  Perception of Receiver
The perception of the receiving agent on how effective power can be used goes a long way in defining the social relationship....
     
 
  Desire to Have Power...
Why do people desire social power?...
     
 
  2 more Types of Power
There are two other types of power. One is derived from dependency relationship. Any dependency for anything else makes one powerful over the dependents. This may be called "Dependency Power". The other power may be termed as "Synergistic P...
     
 
  What is Referent Power? Definition and Examples
The definition for “referent power” in the summary of the basis of social power is not 100% clear when it says: "referent power is power through association with others who possess power". That could be understood as this power is attributed to the f...
     
 
  Social Power is a Reality
Just as social intelligence is a recognized intelligence, so also social power is a reality. Through social power, people are able to do many things which may not otherwise have been possible for them....
     
 
  Is Charisma a Source of Social Power?
What about personal power or call it charismatic power? Certain people can be powerful through their charisma, energy, stamina, strengt...
     
 
  Framing or Meaning Power
An additional source of power in organizations can be to establish the framework within which issues will be viewed and decided (J. Pfeffer - Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations, 1992). Leaders and elites often have su...
     
 

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Best Practices - Grundval för Makt Premium
  Assumed Power in a Void
Another type of power is that which is created in a void (Ed: ~ empty space) of leadership, that is assumed power. No one is exerting power in an area, so someone assumes that role, and the power is by consensus granted to them. There is no basis for...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Bases of Social Power Premium
 

Bases of Social Power in the Context of Change Initiatives

The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context of change initiatives.
The sources of power in hie...
Usage (application): Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
 
 
 

What precisely was Legitimate Power according to French and Raven? Definition

While I appreciate and aknowledge that the definition of legitimate power, posed in this section, represents the current social paradigm, I bel...
Usage (application): Precise Definition by French and Raven
 
 
 

Mobilize the Expert Power in your Team Early On

In a short article, Bonner and Bolinger describe a surprisingly simple process to beef up the problem solving and/or decision-making capacity of your ...
Usage (application): Team Formation, Expert Power, Group Decision-making, Extroversion, Introversion
 
 
 

Seventh Source of Social Power (French & Raven)

In addition to the above mentioned bases or sources of social (organizational) power, French and Raven also distinguished connectional power as...
Usage (application): Leadership, Management, Change Management
 
 
 

Positional and Personal Bases of Power

In “The Power Theory of Leadership”, Hayden analyses the bases of social power (excluding connectional power) and reiterates that among them, some are...
Usage (application): Leadership
 
 
 

The Relationship between the Power of Leaders and Overconfidence

Fast et al. (2012) researched the relationship between power and overconfidence. In many cases it can be seen that decision making by power holders is...
Usage (application): Leadership, Power, Leadership Development, Executive Education
 
 

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