8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解]

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界定、矫正及消灭反复出现的质量问题。 8D问题求解法的解析。 (1987)

投稿人: David Bruce Doane

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  1. 摘要
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8D Problem Solving[8D问题求解] 什么是8D问题求解法? 释义

8D问题求解法(8D Problem Solving),是一种用以界定、矫正和消灭反复出现的质量问题的管理方法。 8D法是一种有助于产品和流程改进的结构化的问题解决方法, 它包含8个解决问题的方法步骤,其中的D,即是英文方法(Disciplines)的首字母。8D法特别强调团队协同,通常比较适合以团队为单位来解决问题。 该方法的指导思想认为,团队作为整体所拥有的智慧要远大于团队成员个体智慧的和。 8D问题求解法往往也被称作: Global 8D 问题求解法(G8D)、福特8D问题求解法(Ford 8D)、团队导向的8D问题求解法(Team Oriented Problem Solving,TOPS 8D).
 

8D问题求解法的起源。 历史

二战期间,美国政府率先采用一种类似8D的流程——“军事标准1520”,又称之为“不合格品的修正行动及部署系统”。 1987年,福特汽车公司首次用书面记录下8D法,在其一份课程手册中这一方法被命名为“团队导向的问题解决法”(Team Oriented Problem Solving)。 当时,福特的动力系统部门正被一些经年累月、反复出现的生产问题搞得焦头烂额,因此其管理层提请福特集团提供指导课程,帮助解决难题。


8D问题解决法的运用。 应用

  • 不合格的产品问题。
  • 顾客投诉问题。
  • 反复频发问题。
  • 需要团队作业的问题。

8D问题解决法的步骤。 流程

D0。 问题出现,做好准备。 首先,需要做好实施8D的各项准备工作。 先考虑是否需要应用8D,并非所有的问题都需要用8D来解决,有些问题采取通常的防范措施就行。 而且,8D法是一种基于事实的流程作业法,需要适应于持续改善的特殊技能和组织文化。 在实施有效的8D法之前,组织也许还有必要提供一些相关的学习和培训。

  • D1组建团队。 组建一支跨越组织各功能区域的8D团队(包括一名能力较强的指挥官),他们具有所需的知识、技能、时间和授权,能够胜任8D工作,解决问题,执行矫正方案。 为了使团队高效运作,还要进一步设置团队的结构、目标、程序、角色以及明确团队成员之间的相互关系。
  • D2描述问题。 籍由可量化的术语, 运用5W2H分析法(who,what,when,where,why,how,how many), 详细叙述内部/外部顾客的问题并记录之。
  • D3实施及确认暂时性的围堵行动。 临时应对之法。 在永久性对策尚未确定之前,先对问题进行界定并实施围堵行动,以使内部/外部顾客免受问题的困扰。 根据确凿数据,确认围堵行动的有效性。
  • D4界定及确认真正肇因。 指出所有可解释会造成该问题的可能原因。 Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]。 然后根据D2的问题描述及相关数据,逐一测试各可能原因。 找出真正肇因,并提出消除真正肇因的方案。 注意两种平行的真正肇因存在的情况: a事故性肇因(Root Cause of Event),系统允许问题情况发生;b逃逸点肇因(Root Cause of Escape / Escape Point),系统允许问题情况发生且失察。
  • D5选择并确认矫正行动。 确定所选定的矫正措施确实能为顾客解决问题,同时不会产生不良影响。 如有必要的话,根据可能出现的负面影响的严重程度,制定意外事故应对措施。
  • D6实施永久性矫正计划。 确定并执行最好的永久性矫正措施,并实施有效控制机制,以确保该真正肇因已被消除。 一旦正式生产后,监视长期影响,若有必要,实施紧急处理措施。
  • D7防止问题复发。 界定并执行必须的步骤,以防止同样的问题或类似问题再次发生: 改进管理系统、操作系统及工作程序,修订操作程序常规,评估工作流程,加强培训,等等。
  • D8恭贺团队。 肯定团队的集体努力。 发表工作成果。 在组织内进行知识分享。

8D问题解决法的优势。 优点

  • 发现真正肇因的有效方法,并能够采取针对性措施消除真正肇因,执行永久性矫正措施。
  • 能够帮助探索允许问题逃逸的控制系统。 逃逸点的研究有助于提高控制系统在问题再次出现时的监测能力。
  • 预防机制的研究有助于帮助系统将问题控制在初级阶段。

8D问题解决法的局限。 缺点

  • 8D培训费时,且本身具有难度。
  • 除了对8D问题解决流程进行培训外,还需要数据挖掘的培训,以及对所需用到的分析工具(如帕累托图、鱼骨图和流程图,等等)进行培训。

参考书: Rambaud, Laurie. (2006)。 8D Structured Problem Solving: A Guide to Creating High Quality 8D Reports (Spiral-bound) -


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比较: Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Total Quality Management[全面质量管理]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Six Sigma[六西格玛]  |  Deming Cycle[戴明循环]  |  Theory of Constraints[约束理论]  |  Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]


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