Earnings per Share
(EPS)

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Reported Earnings. Explanation of Earnings per Share. EPS.

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Earnings per Share (EPS) is a traditional method used for determining corporate value. Similar words like EPS are: Accounting Earnings and Reported Earnings, except that EPS is divided by the average number of outstanding shares.


Earnings per ShareEPS calculation

Earnings per Share can be calculated by subtracting the dividends on preferred stock from net income, and dividing the result by the (weighted average of the) combination of all outstanding common shares and all common stock equivalents (see figure on the right).


Fully Diluted EPS

Fully Diluted EPS means that all common stock equivalents (convertible bonds, preferred stock, warrants, and rights) have been included along with the common stock.


A poor indicator of actual corporate value

Reported Earnings are a very poor indicator of corporate value.


Six major reasons why EPS fails to reliably measure the economic value of firms are:

  1. Alternative accounting methods may be employed. Both required changes by FASB or IAS and voluntary changes can change EPS, but do not affect economic value.
  2. Risk is excluded. Both business risk and financial risk are not accounted for in annual reports.
  3. Investment requirements are excluded. Changes in for example the working capital are not considered in Reported Earnings.
  4. Dividend policy is not considered. For example dividend decreases will show increased EPS but are in fact value neutral.
  5. The time value of money is ignored. No present value calculation in Reported Earnings.
  6. The increased role which intangible assets play in our economic system, that has moved from an industrial economy towards a services and knowledge oriented economy.

Despite Enronitis, Earnings per Share is still being widely used in many annual reports.


Book: Steven M. Bragg - Business Ratios and Formulas : A Comprehensive Guide -

Book: Ciaran Walsh - Key Management Ratios -


Earnings per Share Forum
  Calculation of Earnings per Share
There is also another method one might adopt to calculate earnings per share which is:
( price of share[b2] - price of share[b1] + dividends ) / [b2]
Where b1 is the begining price and b2 is the ending price....
     
 
  Restricted Stock Award in EPS Calculation
When calculating my EPS should I include the Restricted Stock Awards (RSA)? The RSA were given out in Feb/09 and have a vesting period of 5 years. I am preparing my 10-Q for the first quarter of 2009....
     
 
  What is Ongoing EPS?
In need to find a good definition of Ongoing Earnings per Share. Who can help?...
     
 
  What is Pro Forma EPS?
What is Pro Forma Earnings per Share exactly?...
     
 

Earnings per Share Special Interest Group


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Earnings per Share Education & Events


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Best Practices - Earnings per Share Premium
  Consequences of Stock Price Decrease
Hi, I would like to know if a company stock price decreases, why is this an issue and what are the consequences?...
     
 

Expert Tips - Earnings per Share Premium
 

What are the Indicators of High Quality of Earnings?

The term quality of earnings usually refers to the degree of conservatism in a firmís reported earnings. Indicators of high earnings quality in...
Usage (application): Analyzing Reported Earnings
 
 
 

What is the Degree of Management Discretion or Manipulation?

The discretionary nature of income recognition permits an examination of the degree of management manipulation of earnings under one or more of the fo...
Usage (application): Analyzing Reported Earnings
 
 
 

Stock Buybacks as a Means of Value Extraction

According to Prof. Lazonick, in the USA the increased corporate profitability over the last couple of years did not lead to higher economic prosperity...
Usage (application): Stock Buybacks, Stock Repurchases, Corporate Profitability, Economic Prosperity, Executive Compensation, EPS
 
 
 

Computation of DILUTED EPS

Diluted EPS is a conservative measure of the earnings flow to each share, as this measure presumes the maximum possible creation of new shares and thu...
Usage (application): Financial Reporting
 
 

Resources - Earnings per Share Premium

Financial Statement Analysis | Ratio Analysis

This presentation provides insights in Financial statement and ratio analysis, and includes the following sectios:
1. Financial analysis
2. ...
Usage (application): Ratio Analysis, Finanical Statement Analysis
 

Diluted EPS

This paper by Carol Marquardt and Christine I. Wiedman examines the economic consequences of changes in the financial reporting requirements for conti...
Usage (application): Financial Reporting
 

3 Minute Introduction to Financial Ratio Analysis: Why do it and What are the Main Types?

Why financial ratio analysis?
1. To compare the financial health of (similar) compani...
Usage (application): Types of Financial Ratios, Financial Ratio Analysis, Financial Ratio Types
 

Prospective EPS

This report by Hraham Bates a.o. considers the relation between pro-forma and forecast consensus earnings per share (EPS) figures in terms of six meas...
Usage (application): Financial Engineering
 

Earnings per Share Diagram

Download and edit this 12manage PowerPoint graphic for limited personal, educational and business use. Republishing in intranets, websites, books, ma...
Usage (application): Financial Reporting
 
 

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Compare with EPS:  EBIT  |  EBITDA  |  P/E Ratio  |  Economic Value Added  |  Cash Ratio  |  Current Ratio  |  Return on Equity  |  Fair Value  |  ROIC


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