Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪)

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区别企业文化的四种类型。 狄尔与肯尼迪的文化类型解析。 (1982)

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Culture Types[文化类型] (狄尔&肯尼迪) 什么是文化类型? 释义

哈佛教授泰伦斯·狄尔(Terrence Deal)与麦肯锡咨询公司咨讯顾问艾伦·肯尼迪(Allen Kennedy)是最早一批致力于企业文化(Corporate Culture)研究的学者。 1982年,在他们的书作《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》(Corporate Culture: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life)中,狄尔与肯尼迪认为, 组织文化简而言之就是组织的行事方式(The way things get done around here)。


在这本书中,他们还提出了企业文化的六个关联要素: 历史、价值观与信仰、礼仪与仪式,故事、英雄以及由企业内外不同群体所组成的文化网络。 他们通过以下两个因素来区分企业的文化类型:

  • 反馈速度(Feedback Speed: 企业活动获取反馈与回报的速度。
  • 风险程度(Degree of Risk: 企业活动的风险程度和不确定度。

根据这两个因素,企业文化即可划分出以下四个类型:

  1. 硬汉型文化(Tough-Guy Macho Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险大):
    • 因为高风险和回报的不确定性而产生压力。
    • 着眼当下,个人主义压倒团队精神。
    • 典型: 广告业、经济人行业、体育圈。
  2. 苦干型文化(Work-Hard, Play-Hard Culture)(反馈与回报的速度快,风险低):
    • 压力源自工作量,而非工作任务的不确定性。
    • 重视速度,超人工作。
    • 典型: 销售业、餐饮业、软件行业。
  3. 办差型文化(Process Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险低):
    • 压力一般较低,但组织内部政策以及官僚制度也有可能造成压力。
    • 关注细节与流程表现。
    • 典型: 政府机关、银行业、保险业、公共机构。
  4. 赌注型文化(Bet-Your-Company Culture(反馈与回报的速度慢,风险高):
    • 压力源自高风险以及反馈与回报的滞后。
    • 目光长远,重视准备与规划。
    • 典型: 制药业、飞机制造业、石油勘探业。

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life (1982) [中译本《企业文化:企业生活中的礼仪与仪式》,中国人民大学出版社,2008] -

参考书: Terrence E. Deal, Allan A. Kennedy - The New Corporate Cultures (2000) [中译本《创造竞争优势:7大经营挑战与5大成功法宝》,台北先觉出版股份有限公司,2001] -


文化类型论坛
  Innovation in a Target Culture
Many organizations today have a 'target culture', which is characterized by strong performance management, performance monitoring, individual target setting. Furthermore, such organizations are behold...
     
 
  Another Culture Type: the Yes Culture
Schmidt and Rosenberg recommend to establish a "Yes Culture" in order to establish an innovative firm. It is a culture in which the default answer to innovators asking if they may proceed with their idea is "yes".
It is the opposite of a No-Cult...
     
 
  Relationship of Leader Communication Style and Organization Culture on Organization Effectiveness
I am in the process of drafting proposal for my doctoral studies on the above subject. Would appreciate if one has developed a model or a framework to link the three parameters....
     
 
  Connecting Culture and the Dominant Strategy
The flaw in the Deal and Kennedy model is that it does not connect culture to the strategies being implemented by the organization.
In my book, The Alpha Strategies, Understanding Strategy, Risk, and Values in Any Organization, I argue that ther...
     
 
  12 Culture Factors of Drennan?
Has anyone heard of Drennan and his 12 factors in which you can recognize a corporate culture? He is the one who said culture is 'The way we do things around here'. There's so little on him and his theories on the net....
     
 
  The Effects of Leadership on Organizational Culture
Hi, I am currently researching on "The effects of leadership on organizational culture" for my thesis. I am enrolled for the MSc in leadership and change management.
Your ideas and comments will be highly appreciated.
Regards, George....
     
 
  High Performance Work Culture
Of what does a high performance work culture consists...?...
     
 
  Do Competitive Work Cultures Lead to Better Performance?
I am searching for information and sources (books or articles) to give me information about differences between competitive and cooperation cultures at work. And what types of cultures are competitive ? Thanks for your help....
     
 
  Culture Types Useful Model
This model on culture types makes it easy to understand why certain results can be attained, particularly when efforts are made to enforce cultural change....
     
 
  International Culture Types
I think that the four culture types model has now become too limited. Not many of the types work well for third-world country or current developing nation cultures..
Who knows of a corporate culture model like the one from Kennedy and Deal, but ...
     
 

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Expert Tips (ENG) - Culture Types 高级帐户
 

Establishing an Organizational Culture of Perpetual Crisis

An interesting article in the issue of Fortune (Sept. 5, 2005, no. 15) explains how Jong-Yong Yun, CEO of Samsung, is relentlessly building a culture ...
Usage (application)Corporate Culture Best Practice
 
 
 

Strategies to Change Employee Habits, Hearts and Heads

According to J.E. Kee and K.E. Newcomer ("Why Do Change Efforts Fail? What Can Leaders Do About It?", The Public Manager, Fall 2008), the key to chang...
Usage (application)Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

Pitfalls and Best Practices in Culture Change

According to Jon Katzenbach and Ashley Harshak ("Stop Blaming Your Culture", strategy+business, Spring 2011, Issue 62), following myths of culture cha...
Usage (application)Changing Organizational Cultures, What to DO and what NOT
 
 
 

Why is Changing an Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Why is changing an organization culture so difficult? Because, once it is established, a culture has the tendency to strengthen itself, become more ho...
Usage (application)Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Schein (as cited by Bertagni et al., 2010) tries to elaborate on the question why organizational innovations often fail or are only successful in the ...
Usage (application)Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

The Importance of Culture in Organizational Performance

John Connolly, former CEO of Deloitte UK, argues that one of the most critical determinants of organizational performance is culture. Culture refers t...
Usage (application)Organizational Culture, Corporate Culture, Employee Behavior, Organizational Performance
 
 
 

7 Mechanisms to Change Corporate Cultures

Management can choose from this menu of actions to change a problematic corporate culture:
1. Making a compelling case for why the organi...
Usage (application)Change Management, Organizational Change, Culture Change
 
 
 

PROs and CONs of a Strong Corporate Culture

Implementing a significant change is generally easier when the corporate culture is not strong. By strong Corporate Culture is meant that values an...
Usage (application)Corporate Culture Change, Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 

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