Customer Relationship Management[顾客关系管理]

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实施顾客亲和的经营战略,采取顾客满意的行为措施,执行以顾客为中心的工作流程。 顾客关系管理解析。

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客户关系管理 - 概要什么是顾客关系管理? 释义

顾客关系管理(Customer Relationship Management, CRM)有不止一种定义, 有的定义偏重信息技术对于CRM的重要性,有的定义强调以顾客为中心的组织构型,有的定义认为CRM实质上是一项功能性战略(市场战略),更有定义将CRM上升至全局性的经营战略。 我们同意艾德·皮伦(Ed Peelen, 2006)的说法,Gartner Group(2004)为CRM所做的定义最为引人入胜: CRM是一项IT化的企业经营战略,通过配置顾客导向的组织构型、采取顾客满意的行为措施、执行以顾客为中心的工作流程,从而实现在提高组织营收与效益的同时最大化顾客的满意度。


由此可以看出,CRM决不仅仅是一项功能性的战略,它确实是事关全局的经营战略。 CRM触及企业的方方面面,如: 营销、销售、IT、物流、财务、生产、研发、人力资源、综合管理,等等。 根据如此定义来执行CRM,对任何组织而言,都是一个不小的挑战。


执行CRM,仅做到增加利润、提高效率(对顾客)是不够的。 真正的CRM,是一种追求顾客亲和的经营战略。作为营销哲学,它的重心是关系,而非交易。与此同时,CRM对组织构型亦提出了以顾客为导向的要求。
 

顾客关系管理的起源。 历史

1980年代的直销极度地依赖于顾客数据库。 北欧学派的克里斯汀·格罗鲁斯(Christan Grönroos)埃弗特·古迈森(Evert Gummesson),以及美国营销大师西奥多·Theodore Levitt最早对此作出了论述。 他们率先对关系营销与交易营销(Transaction Marketing)做了比较研究。 他们概括定义了以关系为中心的组织的特征,并为其提供了相关的市场工具。 1995年,特里西和威尔斯马(Treacy & Wiersema)在著作中提出了三个价值信条。 亲近顾客为其中之一。 CRM在1990年代由基于互联网络的信息管理工具最终转型为全方位的顾客导向的企业经营战略。


顾客关系管理的运用。 应用

  • 致力于实现顾客亲和企业战略的公司。
  • 致力于树立顾客友好企业形象的公司。

顾客关系管理的步骤。 流程

构建顾客关系导向型企业包括以下几项内容:

  1. 坚强有力的顾客导向型领导力
  2. 放眼长远的顾客导向型组织使命
  3. 全心全意的顾客导向型企业目的
  4. 顾客亲和为目标的企业战略。
  5. 充分体现顾客关怀的企业价值观和员工价值观
  6. 充分反映顾客同理心和长期顾客关系的行为标准
  7. 关系导向型的组织文化
  8. 以顾客接触为中心的组织构型。 比较: Co-Creation[共同创造]Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]
  9. 具有顾客同理心和顾客 沟通技能的企业员工。
  10. 能将“软价值”(如Value Profit Chain[价值利润链])与“硬价值”(如Balanced Scorecard[平衡计分卡])联系起来进行管理的操作系统。

顾客关系管理的优势。 优点

  • 就市场竞争而言,与顾客的紧密联系对企业来说有一定程度的保护作用。
  • 拥有大批忠诚顾客,企业的利润率更高。 一方面,新顾客的争取成本较高,代价不菲;另一方面,老顾客很可能增加消费量,回头客很可能对其他商品发生兴趣,产生额外消费。

顾客关系管理的局限。 缺点

  • 实施CRM必须是触一发而动全身,组织内部无一处能够置之度外。
  • 对于CRM的投入可能使组织利润受损。
  • 执行CRM过程中要兼顾可持续的竞争优势,更是难上加难。

顾客关系管理的假定。 前提

  • 企业投之以桃,顾客就会报之以李。
  • 由实践中的战略向顾客亲和战略转型是现实可行的。

顾客满意度的评估。

对于服务性行业来说,有两种方法可以用来评估顾客的满意程度,即顾客满意度模型SERVQUAL法


参考书: Ed Peelen - Customer Relationship Management -

参考书: Heskett, Sasser and Schlesinger - The Service Profit Chain [中译本《服务利润链》,机械工业出版社,2005年6月] -


顾客关系管理论坛
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  Six Relationship Management Interaction Processes (Geersbro and Ritter) for International Relations
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  CRM in Military Organizations?
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If yes, how do they go about it and what's the advantage of using that?...
     
 
  Customer Relationship Management as a Strategic Development Philosophy
Customer Relationship Management is a term that not only describes a set of software tools bundled into a 'CRM' application but, is also becoming a guiding philosophy in the development of the strategic IT capabilities of an organisation.
As mar...
     
 
  Social Customer Relationship Management | Social CRM
Because of the increasing popularity of social media technologies, Customer Relationship Management now gives way to a broader perspective that acknowledges the new capabilities that are a result of social and technological shifts caused by social me...
     
 
  Fragmented Customer Service Processes
I think advancing customer service for most firms starts with unifying fragmented customer service processes. Only then can you move forward to more advanced CRM approaches....
     
 
  Customer Relationship Management Metaphor
CRM is like farming the field:
Firstly you should own some field of land.
Then you input seeds, water and fertilizer.
You need to pay attention to any diseases.
And you must look after all kinds of customers....
     
 
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  Advanced Customer-Oriented Strategy: Customer Advocacy
The development of the Internet has resulted in more powerful consumers than before. The Internet facilitates the gathering of up to date information about products and services before making a purchase decision. They are now able to verify or...
     
 
  CRM in a Non-profit Context
Besides using CRM in profit-oriented companies, CRM can also be of importance in non-profit organizations. Buttle gives two examples of non-profit organizations that successfully implemented CRM:
1. Salvation Army: the management o...
     
 
  The CRM-paradox by Nguyen
Recently, the CRM-paradox has been put forward by Nguyen, meaning the following: in CRM it is very common to treat certain customer groups differently from others, since various consumers have different needs and wants.
Clearly, there are severa...
     
 
  CRM Practices in FMCG Sector
Do FMCG companies engage in using CRM? If yes, how do they go about it and what's their advantage since they are not service providing companies......
     
 
  Theories of Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
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  Healthcare CRM Models?
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  CRM in University Set Up
What kind of CRM tools are universities implementing?...
     
 
  Relationship with Company or with Employees?
Can a business customer relationship be said to exist between:
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最佳实践 - 顾客关系管理 高级帐户
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  Framework for Monitoring Customer Service
Dear all, please let me know what is an approproate framework for monitoring customer service.
Thank you in advance for your help. Miragha....
     
 
  What is the Impact of CRM on Organizational Performance?
What is the impact of CRM on organisational performance?
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Customer Relationship Management CRM 高级帐户
 

Common Reasons for Failure of CRM Initiatives

Based on research, reasons for unsuccessful CRM initiatives are linked to following:
- Launching initiatives without an overall customer m...
Usage (application)Implementation of CRM Initiatives
 
 
 

Key Challenges of a CRM Implementation for Senior Managers

In an article, Behram Hansotia describes following key challenges of a CRM implementation for senior managers:
- Ensuring that the whole m...
Usage (application)Implementing Customer Relationship Management
 
 
 

3 Types of Customer Services

According to De Vries, Kasper and Van Helsdingen (2001) three types of customer services can be distinguished:
1. PERSONAL Customized Services...
Usage (application)Understanding The Nature of Customer Services
 
 
 

The New Consumer and CRM

Understanding customers' satisfying behaviors is a constantly changing process that can be understood only with an attentive analysis of the ultimate ...
Usage (application)Characteristics of the New Consumer
 
 
 

What are the Main CRM Activities?

Customer relationship management (CRM) is the business process that provides the structure for how relationships with customers are developed and main...
Usage (application)CRM Strategy, Activities
 
 
 

A Closer Look Into Customer Value

It is often argued that customer value is required for staying competitive and successful as organization. But in what ways can customer value be a cr...
Usage (application)Customer Value Analysis, Strategic Marketing, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Implementing Customer Equity Management

Customer equity can be seen as the lifetime value of a companies existing customer base plus the expected future lifetime value of newly ac...
Usage (application)Step-by-step Guide
 
 
 

Customer Centricity: Success Factors for Customer Intimacy

Customer / Consumer Centricity (CC) is a frequently used concept used by companies to achieve competitive advantages. It is often believed that CC can...
Usage (application)Value Disciplines, Customer Strategy, Customer Intimacy, Customer-oriented, CRM
 
 
 

The Customer Value Scorecard

According to Behram Hansotia, the Customer Value Scorecard (CVS) is a valuable tool to help prioritize CRM opportunities. The CVS shows ...
Usage (application)Prioritizing CRM Opportunities
 
 
 

How to Build Customer-Centric Organizations

In order to implement CRM in a holistic way and to make the customer the focal point of a company's strategy, Behram Hansotia argues in the art...
Usage (application)Holistic CRM
 
 
 

How to Embed CRM Capabilites in CRM Activities?

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Customer Relationship TYPES

Next time you're using the term "CRM", remember there's an R in it... The R of "Relationship".
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CRM in Financial Services

Jim Morgan, author of the article Customer Information Management (CIM): The Key to Successful CRM in Financial Services (Journal of Performa...
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In order to successfully integrate social media into your organization, six useful steps can be used. These are the following:
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There has been an ongoing discussion as to whether cross-buying (buying goods from various categories) is the consequence of customer loyalty or if lo...
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Many companies are already highlighting the importance of trustworthiness by setting and sustaining honest prices and providing reasonable services. A...
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比较: Relation Marketing[关系营销]  |  Value Disciplines[价值信条]  |  Multi Channel Marketing[多渠道营销]  |  Analytical CRM[分析型顾客关系管理]  |  Operational CRM[运营型顾客关系管理]  |  Customer Satisfaction Model[顾客满意度模型]  |  SERVQUAL[SERVQUAL法]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]


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