Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]
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组织发展和变革中的积极思维方式。 Cooperrider的Appreciative Inquiry[肯定式探询]解析。 (‘86)

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什么是肯定式探询? 释义

以下肯定式探询(Appreciative Inquiry)的实践性定义,由David L. Cooperrider提供。
肯定式探询就是搜寻人群间、组织内以及其他相关群体世界中的最好的、最美的一面,籍此,实现个人与群体、成员与组织的共同发展。 从广义上讲,肯定式探询是一个系统的发现过程,旨在寻找那些使“人类”成为一个鲜活系统的要素。有了这些要素,不管是从经济角度,还是从生态角度,或是从人类社会自身去评断,这个系统都是最具活力的,最有效率的,最有建设能力的。 就其中心含义来讲,肯定式探询是一门提问的艺术及实践,它不断强化组织系统的领会能力(Apprehend预测能力(Anticipate以及正向潜能培育能力(Heighten Positive Potential。 肯定式探询尤为突出的地方在于,它能够鼓动成千上百人提出“无条件的积极的问题”(Unconditional Positive Question)


肯定式探询的难度落在了想象与创新的速度上。 因为,在这里没有否定、批评和教育,取而代之的是,新知探索、梦想构筑和愿景设计。 肯定式探询意欲从根本上把人类社会和人们所谈论的各种物能与智能(包括过去的和现在的)组合起来,构造成一个建设性的联盟。 这些被组合的对象包括:成就、财富、潜力、创新力、实力、思想、机会、基准尺度、巅峰瞬间、生存价值、传统、竞争力、故事、智语、对集体精神的深层感悟体会,以及对美好未来的想象愿景,等等。 因为肯定式探询认定,每一个充满活力的组织系统都有许多尚未开发的、激动人心的积极资产。将上述提到的各项资产组合到一起,就能找到“积极的变革核心(Positive Change Core)”,肯定式探询的真正工作就将从这里入手。 将“积极变革核心”的能量直接释放于任何一项变革进程,就会发现,即便是那些从前认为绝不可能发生的变化,突然之间也有了转机。在这里看不到任何外力的压迫作用,完全是内在自发的自由民主式过程。


根据肯定式探询理论,人类社会系统稳健地朝向人们探询的未知世界发展,这一发展趋势只有当人们提问的方式和结果正向相关的时候才最为强壮和稳固。 如果一个组织的目标是促使其成员释放出所有的热情,自觉构建组织美好未来的话,那么,这个组织所要做的就是把“积极变革核心”带给所有的组织成员,并以此来影响他们。


肯定式探询的五项基本原则

  1. 诠释原则(Constructionist Principle)。 (简述) 组织的前途命运与组织成员的知识经验是交织在一起的, 要想成为一个高效的经理人、领导者或者变革家,就一定要擅于像对待有机人体那样,去理解、解读和分析自己的组织。
  2. 并发原则(Principle of Simultaneity)。 肯定式探询理论认为问询和变革并非是两个相对独立的时间过程,而是同时发生的。 问询伊始,正常的发展过程即受到干涉、发展轨迹即受到影响。 发生变革所需的火种,也就是人们谈论思考的话题、人们学习探索的新知、以及人们对话展望的动因,在提出问题的那一刹那就产生了。 换句话说,我们的“探询”影响我们的“发现”。 而我们的各种“发现”(信息、数据),最终成为语言材料、经验故事,成为酝酿、解构和建设未来的力量之源。
  3. 诗歌原则(Poetic Principle)。 我们与其将人类社会组织比作一部机器,到不如说它是一本打开的书。 一个组织的故事是由它的所有成员持续不断共同写就的。 而且,在这一“写作”过程中,过去、现在、未来无始无终,学习、感悟和判解也永不停息。 这就恰好像人们对一段曼妙诗篇、经文的注解,永远没有尽头,不断有新的内容加入。 言下之意就是,我们能够从人类的任何系统、组织中汲取一切经验,用于个人和组织的学习提高。 我们有能力探寻人类社会系统、组织中的任何特质,如欢愉或落寞、狂热或寡兴、高效或冗余,等等。
  4. 预想原则(Anticipatory Principle。 我们赖以实现建设性的组织变革的无穷资源,来源于我们对未来的集体构想和理解。 预想原则关于组织生活的一个基本观点是,正是那些描绘出来的未来图景,在指导组织、机体当下的实践活动。 就像电影放映机总要投向前方的荧屏,人类系统的“放映机”亦永远投向未来与愿景。 在人们所用的隐喻里和语言中,随处可见未来的影子, 这使得未来成为一股作用于现实的强大的动员力量。
  5. 积极原则Positive Principle)。 这项原则不像其他原则那么抽象, 它从肯定式探询多年的实践中来。 我们经验发现,一个最简单不过的道理就是,若想集聚和保存变革力量,一种积极的影响力和社会亲密感是非常重要的, 如希望、振奋、鼓舞、关怀、友谊、工作的紧迫感,以及完成任务后的愉悦感。 我们还发现,工作中提问的方式愈加积极,我们的变革努力将愈加成功与持久。 而用那种世界充满矛盾的消极态度提问,结果往往是于事无补。 我们如果能够像谦恭的门徒那样,永远保持积极的探询之心,将变得更加有强壮、聪慧与高效。 若要产生这样的变化,就要从正向催化的角度出发,提出“无条件的积极的问题”!

肯定式探询的起源。 历史

研究人员对肯定式探询做过了各种各样的观察和描述, 作为一个成功范例,肯定式探询描述了在适应新世纪过程中的意识进化(Hubbard,1998); 作为一种研究方法,肯定式探询将社会现实构造推向正向极端,并将研究重点集中在隐喻、叙述、关系工作、语言以及理论革新的潜在动因上(Gergen,1996); 作为一项研究领域,肯定式探询走在了近十年行动研究学的最前沿(Bushe,1991); 作为一名后继者,肯定式探询发展了马斯洛的积极社会科学观(Chin,1998; Curran,1991); 作为一门组织理论,肯定式探询是强有力的第二代组织发展实践(French and Bell,1995; Porrras,1995; Mirvis 1993); 作为一项需要大众参与的方法,肯定式探询是“如何问问题的新瑜伽” (Harman,1991); 作为一项积极肯定的变革法,肯定式探询引导我们用全新的视点去对待基于问题的组织管理,籍此,我们对战略规划、调研调查、文化变革、整合战略、全面质量管理、社会科技系统等理论方法有了新的认识(White, 1997); 最后,肯定式探询成为组织发展理论的坚实基石(Sorenson, et.al.,1996)。


肯定式探询的步骤。 流程

  1. 新知探索(Discovery)。 调动整个系统,进入积极探询的变革核心。
  2. 梦想构筑Dream)。 基于业已发现的潜能,围绕更高的追求,构筑清晰的梦境。例如,问一问自己,“今天的世界要求我们如何应对明天的挑战?”“通过今天的不懈努力,明天的我们又将会变成怎样?”
  3. 组织设计(Design。 就如何构建理想化组织提出各种建议。在这样的组织内,每一名成员要既能自由释放推动组织变革的积极潜能,又能自由实现自己构筑的梦想 。
  4. 把握命运(Destiny)。 进一步强化整个系统积极肯定的性征,满怀希望和动力,去实现更为远大的组织目标。在此过程中,组织成员的学习、调整和提高此时已经成为自觉的行为习惯,就好像爵士乐队的即兴演奏。

肯定式探询理论认为,组织是人类息息关联的神经中枢,健康茁壮的人际关系只存在于肯定式探询的组织内。 在这样的组织内,组织成员互相欣赏对方的优点和长处,采用积极肯定的态度,去分享对方的人生梦想和终极关怀,大家同心同德,携手共同创造一个崭新的世界,一个更加美好的世界。 加速扩张的肯定式探询,正在使我们从纷繁芜杂的传统变革理论中觉醒, 尤其将使我们彻底摆脱那些基于人类缺陷构建的理论的束缚。 肯定式探询正在督促我们与他人、与团队、与组织进行更具建设性的、更加积极的、更富生命力的,甚至于是灵魂间的交流与合作。


参考书: David L. Cooperrider - Constructive Discourse and Human Organization -

参考书: David L. Cooperrider - Appreciative Inquiry Handbook: The first in a series of…  -


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比较:   Change Management Iceberg[变革管理冰山]  |  Positive Deviance[正向偏差]  |  Forget Borrow Learn[遗忘借用学习法]  |  Hoshin Kanri[方针管理] - Policy Deployment[政策展开]  |  Kaizen[改善]  |  Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]  |  DICE Framework[DICE架构]  |  Change Model Beckhard[Beckhard变革模型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程] Cooper  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]  |  Change Phases[变革阶段]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  MSP[成功管理计划]  |  PMMM[项目管理成熟度模型]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]  |  Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]  |  Office of Strategy Management[战略管理办公室]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]


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