Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程](Cooper)

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产品开发的组织和管理。 Robert G. Cooper的Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]模型解析。 (‘88)

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什么是阶段-关卡流程模型? 释义

阶段-关卡流程(Stage-gate)模型是由Robert G. Cooper提出的,用以高效管理产品开发流程的一种方法。 它是新产品开发的蓝图, 它涵盖了从开发理念到产品生产的整个过程, 它有一系列预设的步骤,即阶段(Stage)。 每一个阶段都包含有一整套跨功能的、平行的具体任务,在被获准执行下一个阶段以前, 必须顺利完成现阶段的任务、活动。 每一个阶段的入口被称之为: 关卡(Gate)。 这些关卡通常是一些正式的会议,对流程进行控制,并发挥以下作用:

  1. 质量控制;
  2. 检查站: 准备情况检查、必须符合的标准检查、应该符合的标准检查。
  3. 下一阶段行动标志。

Stage-Gate®现为Cooper博士领衔的加拿大产品开发研究院(Product Development Institute Inc)的注册商标。


阶段-关卡流程法的起源。 历史

阶段-关卡流程法的问世,基于Cooper博士对60多家企业真实案例的研究,以及大量来自一线管理人员的经验和建议。 阶段-关卡流程一词首次出现于Cooper在《市场管理杂志》(Journal of Marketing Management,1988)上发表的一篇文章中, 但是,在他的早期书作中,还可以找到阶段-关卡流程理论的更早版本,如他在1986年出版的 《决胜新产品》(Winning at New Products)。


阶段-关卡流程法的运用。 应用

  • 产品创新与开发。
  • 产品组合管理。

阶段-关卡流程法的步骤。 流程

阶段-关卡流程模型具有5个常规步骤,最新版本又在五步骤之前增加了一个引入步骤——发现(Discovery, 包括发现新机会、产生新理念的准备工作设计。

  1. 观察(Scoping。 快速地对每一个项目进行初步调查。 通过案头研究提供信息,限制项目数量。
  2. 构建产品框架(Builiding the Business Case。 进行更为细致的市场调研和技术研究, 产品框架必须包括产品功能定义、产品开发理由以及产品项目方案。
  3. 开发(Development。 新产品详细的设计和开发,并行简单的产品测试。 同期亦要敲定产品生产方案与市场方案。
  4. 测试与确认(Testing and Validation。 在实验室、生产一线以及市场上展开大规模产品测试。
  5. 投产、上市(Launch。 大规模生产、推广与销售。 产品/运营、市场投放、分销渠道、质量保证都是这一步的工作, 亦要执行投产上市后的评估。

当然,在现实中,非常有必要为各步骤提出更为具体细致的执行方案和操作建议。


罗伯特G. Cooper的Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]模型

阶段-关卡流程法的优势。 优点

  • 组织完善的创新开发活动能够成为组织的一项竞争优势。
  • 加速产品开发。 因为产品寿命周期的不断缩短,阶段-关卡流程法有其显得必要。
  • 提高了新产品的市场成功机率。 能够及早避免不良产品开发项目,帮助修正其开发方向。
  • 将大公司复杂的产品研发过程进行合理细分。
  • 提供开发纲要,有助于关注优先项目、优先流程。
  • 对市场因素进行了有效整合。
  • 跨功能。 融入了组织内不同功能人员的参与和投入。 尽管没有单独的研发或市场阶段, 但已新增了发现阶段。
  • 能与各种绩效管理工具有效嫁接,如Net Present Value[净现值]等等。

阶段-关卡流程法的局限。 缺点

  • 尽管提到在每一阶段内各任务活动平行展开,但是从根本上来看,该方法显然用的是瀑布流水似的前后承继法。 一些产品创新专家提出,产品开发活动一定要是环形平行结构。
  • 很长一段时间,阶段-关卡流程法缺少市场发现、寻找创新理念的过程。
  • 在开发组织与开发创造之间存在一种紧张关系, 但是对于产品创新来说,少了它们哪一个都不行。

参考书: Robert G. Cooper - Product Leadership - Pathways to Profitable Innovation -


阶段-关卡流程论坛
  Stage Gate Revisited
Whereas most Stage Gate models have a qualitative, non-financial orientation, Strat/Assess is a funnel innovation model, that can be used as a version of and in combination with the Robert G. Cooper Stage-Gate Model. Also it aligns as a more c...
     
 
  Stage Gate Models Need to Be Quantified and Be Made Measurable
Stage gate model results are too qualitative: what gets measured, gets done!
Strat/Assess can be used as a version of and in combination with the Robert G.Cooper Stage-Gate Model and aligns with the Bell-Mason Diagnostic for:
1. New busines...
     
 
  Iteration in Stage-Gate Model (Dr Cooper)
This model is good for new product development but its execution appears to be sequential in nature.
(How) is the idea of iteration incorporated in the model?...
     
 
  Stage-Gates are Not Limitative
The stage gate model is a widely used model, not only for product innovation but also for all projects. It is part of the Prince2 project management method.
Note that the the phases and number of gates are...
     
 
  Stage-Gate Process for Quality
Has anyone applied the stage-gate process in an actual new product development for the specific purpose of improving product quality and customer satisfaction? What were the results?...
     
 
  My Views on Innovation in Countries
1. The political leadership has the major say to promote innovation since it controls the environment, and environment is the first thing which gives scope for development of innovation.
2. Depending on the political leadership the drive for inn...
     
 
  A Good Time to Innovate
I am not surprised that innovation has become a dominant buzzword in the world of business today. The time to try out new ideas and new and simplified ways of doing things cheaper, faster and better is now. Now that we are faced with world eco...
     
 
  Students' Lack of Innovation
Many students simply study study study.
Many students coming out of school have simply done what the instructor told them to do; none of them are given a chance to show any initiative; many of them cannot do anything without specific instruction...
     
 
  Innovation in Emerging Economies
How do we create an enabling environment for innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship in emerging economies?...
     
 
  Innovation versus Improvisation
What separates innovation from improvisation?...
     
 
  Estabish a Distributed Innovation Group
In an article entitled "Teaming Up to Crack Innovation and Enterprise Integration, James Cash, Michael Earl and Robert Morison suggest to establish a Distributed Innovation Group (DIG) to deal with the problems of harvesting innovations, alloc...
     
 
  Ten Commandments for Intrapreneurs
Besides a staged innovation process, intrapreneurs are also important in successful innovation. Norman Macrae used the term intrapreneur for the first time (in a survey called The coming entrepreneurial revolution in the Economist, December 25, 197...
     
 
  Agenda for Stage-Gate Meeting?
What is the draft process for a Stage-Gate meeting?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 阶段-关卡流程 高级帐户
  Involving End Users in the Innovation Process
Is it reasonable to involve end users in the innovation process within the company (during product development) at all the stages of the Stage-Gate model?...
     
 
  Innovation Leadership
The main challenge to improve innovation is how to develop leaders which stimulate and sustain innovation instead of just looking at the bottom line figures.
An innovative culture is the consequence of the behaviour and decisions of the l...
     
 
  Tip: 10 Red Flags for Innovation
Interesting statement for discussion in Business Week:
"There's no surefire way to guarantee success in innovation".
Stefan Lindegaard offers 10 helpful suggestions or common pitfalls to avoid." Very recognizable I think:
...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Stage-Gate 高级帐户
 

Success Factors for Stage-Gate Implementation

In his article Implementing a Stage-Gate Process: A Multi-Company Perspective, O Connor analyzed several cases in which the Stage-Gate proce...
Usage (application)Imlementing Stage-Gate Processes
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application)Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Stage-Gate Implementation CSFs

So far Stage-Gate method has been widely recognized as the best New Product Development Process, although there can be significant difference among co...
Usage (application)Implementing the Stage-Gate Process
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Note that Stage Gate is focused mainly on the innovation PROCESS. Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and correspo...
Usage (application)Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stages and Gates

Advantages:
+ Stage - Gate processes have been highly appreciated as they tend to confine investment in the next stage until management is...
Usage (application)Innovation Management, Stage-Gate Implementation
 
 
 

Benefits of Outsourcing Innovation

Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone (Outsourcing Innovation, Executive Adviser, November 2009) argue that outsourcing inn...
Usage (application)Improving Innovation Performance
 
 
 

Setting up a Stage-Gate Organization. Best Practices

To obtain successful outcomes from Stage-Gate it is essential to define roles and responsibilities of all people involved. It is necessary to s...
Usage (application)Stage-Gate Roles and Responsibilities
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
  1. Because the Internet, wireless devices such as mobile phones in co...
    Usage (application)R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application)Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Bottom-up or Top-down

Check out 2 recent articles by professor Deschamps on ...
Usage (application)Corporate Innovation Approaches
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Ha...
Usage (application)Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Cooper's Innovation Diamond (tm)

Also look at Cooper's Innovation Diamond (2005) with (besides the Stage-Gate System) three more factors leading to succesful product innovation:
...
Usage (application)More Factors Leading to Succesful Product Innovation
 
 
 

Another Product Launch Method: 4 I's

I use a Process of 4 I's when coaching planning processes. The process is similar to S/G above but the 4-I's are easier to remember:
INTE...
Usage (application)Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

When Should a Firm Consider to Outsource Innovation?

According to Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone in the article Outsourcing Innovation (Executive Adviser, November 2009)...
Usage (application)Outsourcing Best Practices, Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Under the Radar

If somewhere below in a large corporation an innovator has a very bright, daring, promising but for some perhaps also threatening idea, the traditiona...
Usage (application)Avoiding 5 Obstacles to Major Innovation
 
 
 

Alternatives to Stage-Gate Approach

An alternative product development technique called "The Bounding Box" has been recently pionereed by Phd Laura Doyle. This is a management ...
Usage (application)Innvation Management
 
 
 

Pitfalls and Obstacles in Product Development Strategy

Although product development can be an important growth strategy, it is necessary to keep in mind that several factors tend to hinder this strategy: Usage (application)Product Development, Product Portfolio Management
 
 
 

Control and Measurement Method

To deeply understand performance and effects of Stage-Gate as NPD Process on an organization, an effective measurement and control system should be se...
Usage (application)Tracking Stage-Gate Performance
 
 
 

The Mandate of NPD and the Degree of Change that is Required

When using the Stage-Gate process, a strategic implementation plan is advisable to avoid stakeholders disappointment regarding the New Product Develo...
Usage (application)New Product Development, NPD Process Improvement
 
 
 

Alternate Product Launch Method

Steelcase CEO James P. Hackett describes the following product launch stages:
- THINK (Ponder, Query, Read and research, Network, Document),
...
Usage (application)Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Schein (as cited by Bertagni et al., 2010) tries to elaborate on the question why organizational innovations often fail or are only successful in the ...
Usage (application)Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application)Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Characteristics of Organizations with an IT-driven Business Transformation Strategy

Today organizations need to move quickly through a wide range of business transformations, often caused by new and complex technologies. These technol...
Usage (application)IT-driven Strategy, IT-led Strategy, Competitive Potential, Innovation Accelerators, Disruptive Innovation
 
 
 

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Since 50 years, the Pentagons Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing an incredible amount of breakth...
Usage (application)Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide information about past beha...
Usage (application)Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
 
 
 

The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

New research by Hewlett, Marshall and Sherbin proves that diversity (of personal and team traits) drives innovation and fuels market growth, although ...
Usage (application)Innovation, Increasing Organizational Innovativeness
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application)(Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

A Closer Look at How Change and Innovation Decisions are Made

Kim, T (2015) elaborates on decision making on "non-routines" or innovations. According to him, non-routines can be seen as innovation in the sense th...
Usage (application)Decision-making on Organizational Change, Innovation Decision-making, Contingent, Participative Decision-making
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A Futurethink Innovation Tracker Survey (2006) mentions:
- Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovation
- Creative thi...
Usage (application)Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 

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