Stage-Gate-proces | Stage-Gate-methode | Stage-Gate-model (Cooper)

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Het managen van het productontwikkelingsproces. Verklaring van het Stage-Gate model van Robert G. Cooper. ('88)

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Wat is het Stage-Gate model? Beschrijving

De Stage-Gate methode van Robert G. Cooper is een aanpak die kan worden gebruikt om het productontwikkelingproces effectiever te maken. Het is een blauwdruk voor het managen van het nieuwe productproces. Vanaf een idee tot het introduceren van een product. In een aantal vooraf bepaalde stappen, of stadia. Elk stadium bestaat uit een reeks van bepaalde cross-functionele en parallelle activiteiten die met succes moeten worden voltooid voorafgaand aan het verkrijgen van goedkeuring door het management om naar het volgende stadium van productontwikkeling verder te mogen gaan. De ingang van elk stadium wordt genoemd: een poort (Gate). Deze poorten, die normaal vergaderingen zijn, controleren het proces en dienen voor:

  1. Kwaliteitsbeheersing
  2. Go / Kill controleposten. Gereedheidcontroles, criteria waaraan voldaan moet zijn, en criteria waaraan voldaan mag zijn.
  3. Markeerpunt voor het actieplan voor de volgende fase.

Stage-Gate is een gedeponeerd handelsmerk van Product Development Institute Inc.


Oorsprong van de Stage-Gate methodologie. Geschiedenis

De methode is gebaseerd op de ervaringen, de suggesties en de observaties door een groot aantal managers en bedrijven in meer dan 60 gevallen zoals die door Robert Cooper zijn waargenomen. De term "Stage-Gate" verscheen voor het eerst in een artikel door Cooper in The Journal of Marketing Management, 3, 3, Spring 1988. Een nog vroegere versie kan in dit boek van Cooper worden gevonden: "Winning at New Products", 1986.


Gebruik van Stage-Gate. Toepassingen

  • Productontwikkeling, Innovatie.
  • Component van Portfolio Management.

Stappen (stadia) in het Stage-Gate model. Proces

Het Stage-Gate proces wordt voorafgegaan door een Ontdekkingsstadium (Discovery), dat in een latere versie van het originele model werd toegevoegd, welke slechts 5 fasen had. Het bevat het voorwerk dat bedoeld is om kansen te ontdekken en om nieuwe ideeën te genereren.

  1. Werkingsgebied. Een snel, inleidend onderzoek van elk project. Biedt goedkope informatie door desk research om het aantal projecten kleiner te maken.
  2. Bouw de Business case. Een meer gedetailleerd onderzoek door primaire marketing en technisch onderzoek. De business case moet een productdefinitie, een productrechtvaardiging en een projectplan bevatten.
  3. Ontwikkeling. Een gedetailleerd ontwerp en ontwikkeling van het nieuwe product, samen met sommige eenvoudige producttesten. Ook wordt een productieplan en een marktintroductie plan ontwikkeld.
  4. Testen en Validatie. Uitgebreide producttesten in zowel de markt, het laboratorium als de fabriek.
  5. Lancering. Begin van volledige productie, marketing en verkoop. De marktintroductie, productie / operaties, distributie, kwaliteitsbewaking. Post-introductie evaluaties worden uitgevoerd.

In werkelijkheid, is het noodzakelijk om de subactiviteiten verder uit te splitsen om gedetailleerde en operationele instructies voor het innovatieteam te bieden.


Het Stage-Gate model van Robert G. Cooper's

Sterke punten van de Stage-Gate methodologie. Voordelen

  • Goedgeorganiseerde innovatie kan een bron van concurrentievoordeel zijn.
  • Versnelde productontwikkeling. Noodzakelijk wegens het verkorten van productlevenscycli.
  • Verhoogde succeskans van nieuwe producten. Voorkomt slechte projecten in een vroeg stadium en helpt hen bij te sturen.
  • Het model splitst het complexe innovatieproces in grote bedrijven op in een aantal kleinere stukken.
  • Biedt overzicht, wat prioriteitsstelling en focus mogelijk maakt.
  • Geïntegreerde marktoriëntatie.
  • Cross-functioneel. Omvat input en participatie door werknemers uit diverse functies in de organisatie. Geen afzonderlijke R&D of Marketing stadium. Maar zie boven Ontdekkingsstadium.
  • Kan met diverse prestatiemetingsmethoden worden gecombineerd, zoals Netto Contante Waarde, enz. 

Beperkingen van Stage-Gate. Nadelen

  • Hoewel binnen een stadium de activiteiten tegelijkertijd kunnen worden uitgevoerd, is de Stage-Gate benadering fundamenteel opeenvolgend (waterval). Sommige innovatiedeskundigen geloven dat productontwikkeling eigenlijk parallel zou moeten worden georganiseerd, gebruikmakend van cirkels.
  • Het originele raamwerk van Stage-Gate hield zich niet bezig met het Ontdekkingsproces en de activiteiten om nieuwe ideeën te creëren.
  • Een spanning bestaat tussen organiseren en creativiteit. Allebei zijn zij zeer belangrijk binnen innovatie.

Boek: Robert G. Cooper - Product Leadership - Pathways to Profitable Innovation -


Stage-Gate-model Forum
  Stage Gate beperking
Stage-Gate is dus noch een incrementele innovatiefilosofie (herhaling van kleine verbeteringen in bestaande producten, of voortgaande efficiencyverbeteringen), noch een radicale innovatiefilosofie (grote verbeteringen binnen zelfde technologisch conc...
     
 
  Stage-Gate beperking
Stage-Gate is dus niet zozeer gericht op productinnovatie, maar meer op procesinnovatie....
     
 
  Stage Gate Revisited
Whereas most Stage Gate models have a qualitative, non-financial orientation, Strat/Assess is a funnel innovation model, that can be used as a version of and in combination with the Robert G. Cooper Stage-Gate Model. Also it aligns as a more c...
     
 
  Stage Gate Models Need to Be Quantified and Be Made Measurable
Stage gate model results are too qualitative: what gets measured, gets done!
Strat/Assess can be used as a version of and in combination with the Robert G.Cooper Stage-Gate Model and aligns with the Bell-Mason Diagnostic for:
1. New busines...
     
 
  Iteration in Stage-Gate Model (Dr Cooper)
This model is good for new product development but its execution appears to be sequential in nature.
(How) is the idea of iteration incorporated in the model?...
     
 
  Stage-Gates are Not Limitative
The stage gate model is a widely used model, not only for product innovation but also for all projects. It is part of the Prince2 project management method.
Note that the the phases and number of gates are...
     
 
  Stage-Gate Process for Quality
Has anyone applied the stage-gate process in an actual new product development for the specific purpose of improving product quality and customer satisfaction? What were the results?...
     
 
  My Views on Innovation in Countries
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  Students' Lack of Innovation
Many students simply study study study.
Many students coming out of school have simply done what the instructor told them to do; none of them are given a chance to show any initiative; many of them cannot do anything without specific instruction...
     
 
  Innovation in Emerging Economies
How do we create an enabling environment for innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship in emerging economies?...
     
 
  Innovation versus Improvisation
What separates innovation from improvisation?...
     
 
  Estabish a Distributed Innovation Group
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  Ten Commandments for Intrapreneurs
Besides a staged innovation process, intrapreneurs are also important in successful innovation. Norman Macrae used the term intrapreneur for the first time (in a survey called “The coming entrepreneurial revolution” in the Economist, December 25, 197...
     
 
  Agenda for Stage-Gate Meeting?
What is the draft process for a Stage-Gate meeting?...
     
 

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Best Practices - Stage-Gate-model Premium
  Involving End Users in the Innovation Process
Is it reasonable to involve end users in the innovation process within the company (during product development) at all the stages of the Stage-Gate model?...
     
 
  Innovation Leadership
The main challenge to improve innovation is how to develop leaders which stimulate and sustain innovation instead of just looking at the bottom line figures.
An innovative culture is the consequence of the behaviour and decisions of the l...
     
 
  Tip: 10 Red Flags for Innovation
Interesting statement for discussion in Business Week:
"There's no surefire way to guarantee success in innovation".
Stefan Lindegaard offers 10 helpful suggestions or common pitfalls to avoid." Very recognizable I think:
...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Stage-Gate Premium
 

Success Factors for Stage-Gate Implementation

In his article “Implementing a Stage-Gate Process: A Multi-Company Perspective”, O’ Connor analyzed several cases in which the Stage-Gate proce...
Usage (application): Imlementing Stage-Gate Processes
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book “Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products”, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application): Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Stage-Gate Implementation CSFs

So far Stage-Gate method has been widely recognized as the best New Product Development Process, although there can be significant difference among co...
Usage (application): Implementing the Stage-Gate Process
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Note that Stage Gate is focused mainly on the innovation PROCESS. Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and correspo...
Usage (application): Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Advantages and Disadvantages of Stages and Gates

Advantages:
+ Stage - Gate processes have been highly appreciated as they tend to confine investment in the next stage until management is...
Usage (application): Innovation Management, Stage-Gate Implementation
 
 
 

Benefits of Outsourcing Innovation

Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone (“Outsourcing Innovation”, Executive Adviser, November 2009) argue that outsourcing inn...
Usage (application): Improving Innovation Performance
 
 
 

Setting up a Stage-Gate Organization. Best Practices

To obtain successful outcomes from Stage-Gate it is essential to define roles and responsibilities of all people involved. It is necessary to s...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Roles and Responsibilities
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
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Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application): Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Bottom-up or Top-down

Check out 2 recent articles by professor Deschamps on ...
Usage (application): Corporate Innovation Approaches
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Ha...
Usage (application): Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Cooper's Innovation Diamond (tm)

Also look at Cooper's Innovation Diamond (2005) with (besides the Stage-Gate System) three more factors leading to succesful product innovation:
...
Usage (application): More Factors Leading to Succesful Product Innovation
 
 
 

Another Product Launch Method: 4 I's

I use a Process of 4 I's when coaching planning processes. The process is similar to S/G above but the 4-I's are easier to remember:
INTE...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

When Should a Firm Consider to Outsource Innovation?

According to Michael A. Stanko, Jonathan D. Bohlmann and Roger J. Calantone in the article “Outsourcing Innovation” (Executive Adviser, November 2009)...
Usage (application): Outsourcing Best Practices, Innovation
 
 
 

Innovating Under the Radar

If somewhere below in a large corporation an innovator has a very bright, daring, promising but for some perhaps also threatening idea, the traditiona...
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Alternatives to Stage-Gate Approach

An alternative product development technique called "The Bounding Box" has been recently pionereed by Phd Laura Doyle. This is a management ...
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Pitfalls and Obstacles in Product Development Strategy

Although product development can be an important growth strategy, it is necessary to keep in mind that several factors tend to hinder this strategy: Usage (application): Product Development, Product Portfolio Management
 
 
 

Control and Measurement Method

To deeply understand performance and effects of Stage-Gate as NPD Process on an organization, an effective measurement and control system should be se...
Usage (application): Tracking Stage-Gate Performance
 
 
 

The Mandate of NPD and the Degree of Change that is Required

When using the Stage-Gate process, a strategic implementation plan is advisable to avoid stakeholders’ disappointment regarding the New Product Develo...
Usage (application): New Product Development, NPD Process Improvement
 
 
 

Alternate Product Launch Method

Steelcase CEO James P. Hackett describes the following product launch stages:
- THINK (Ponder, Query, Read and research, Network, Document),
...
Usage (application): Stage-Gate Alternatives
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Schein (as cited by Bertagni et al., 2010) tries to elaborate on the question why organizational innovations often fail or are only successful in the ...
Usage (application): Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Characteristics of Organizations with an IT-driven Business Transformation Strategy

Today organizations need to move quickly through a wide range of business transformations, often caused by new and complex technologies. These technol...
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Since 50 years, the Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing an incredible amount of breakth...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide information about past beha...
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The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

New research by Hewlett, Marshall and Sherbin proves that diversity (of personal and team traits) drives innovation and fuels market growth, although ...
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Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

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A Closer Look at How Change and Innovation Decisions are Made

Kim, T (2015) elaborates on decision making on "non-routines" or innovations. According to him, non-routines can be seen as innovation in the sense th...
Usage (application): Decision-making on Organizational Change, Innovation Decision-making, Contingent, Participative Decision-making
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A Futurethink Innovation Tracker Survey (2006) mentions:
- Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovation
- Creative thi...
Usage (application): Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 

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Auteursrecht 2016 12manage - The Executive Fast Track. V14.1 - Laatst bijgewerkt op: 3-12-2016. Alle namen zijn tm van hun eigenaren.