Contingency Theory[权变理论]

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理想的组织形式/领导风格/决策方式依赖于组织的内部或外部约束因素。 Contingency Theory[权变理论]解析。

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作为一种行为理论,权变理论(Contingency Theory)认为根本没有所谓的最好的办法去组织企业、领导团队或者制定决策。 组织形式/领导风格/决策方式在某种情况下效果卓著,然而,换一种情况可能就不那么成功。 换句话说, 这种组织形式/领导风格/决策方式依赖于组织内部的或外部的约束(因素)。


制约因素

这些制约因素包括(仅举数例):

  • 组织规模;
  • 组织对于外界环境的适应性;
  • 组织资源与经营活动的差距;
  • 管理人员对员工先入为主的假想;
  • 战略;
  • 科技;
  • 等等。

1. 权变理论与组织

  1. 如何管理组织没有放之四海而皆准的普遍方式或最佳方式。
  2. 组织、系统的设计必须符合它所存在的特殊环境。
  3. 有效组织不仅与其所处环境相适,组织内部的次级系统之间也存在这种适应性。
  4. 只有当组织形式设计适当、组织的管理风格既适应组织任务所需,又贴近组织属性的时候,组织各项所需才能得到较好的满足。

2. 权变理论与领导力

根据权变理论,成功领导是诸多变量的函数,如下属类型、工作任务及团队因素等。 一种特定领导行为的效能亦受制于具体环境需求。 权变理论强调各种不同的领导风格一定要贴近各自的组织环境需要。 与之相关的具体理论有:

  • Fiedler的权变理论(Fiedler's Contingency Theory): Fiedler理论是最早的权变理论,被广泛研究。 Fiedler的研究从领导者性格特征和行为习惯出发,总结出组织绩效受制于领导者个人心智导向及其他三个情景变量,即 组织氛围、任务结构以及领导者权力地位。 这一理论解释了组织绩效在上述三个变量两两作用下的不同结果, 揭示了在不同变量情境下的有效领导风格。 根据Fiedler理论,领导效能就是领导风格与领导者工作环境属性交互作用的结果。
  • Situational Theory[情境理论] (Hersey & Blanchard): 情境理论是Blake和Mouton的管理方格模型(Managerial Grid)和Reddin的3D管理风格理论(3D Management Style Theory)的延伸, 它在对领导力的研究中,扩展了人际关系与工作任务维度的概念,并融入了准备度维度。
  • Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线] (德罗特)

3. 权变理论与决策

Vroom和Yetton的决策参与权变理论(Decision Participation Contingency Theory),或被称作为常规决策理论(Normative Decision Theory)。 根据这一理论模型,决策效能受一系列情境因子影响:

  • 决策品质及下级对决策的接受度。
  • 领导与下级所拥有的相关信息总量。
  • 下级接受独断决策的可能性,或者下级参与其中合作制定更好决策的可能性。
  • 与下级意见的分歧大小。

权变理论和情境理论

没有哪一种简单的方法总是行之有效的,就此假定而言,权变理论与情景理论颇为相似。 它们的主要差别在于,情景理论更关注领导者的行为特征、 所处的情境因素(往往与下级的行为相关)。 而权变理论则采取一个更为广阔的视野,既考虑了领导力的权变因素,又包含了组织环境的其他变量因素。


权变理论论坛
  How to Apply / Implement Contingency Theories in a Context
I would like to know how can I apply contingency theory in an organisational context? And using this theories, how can I identify management and leadership requirement in a given situation?...
     
 
  Contingency Theory versus Situational Theory
I'm finding it really interesting how confusing and cross defined this subject is.
I think that situational and contingency could almost be band under the same group; to be honest they are very similar.
Dou you agree? If not, what differenc...
     
 
  Effects of Contigency Variables
In what ways may the variables in the contingency approach affect management approaches in organisations?...
     
 
  History of Contingency Theory
I would like to know more about the origin and the development of contingency theory. Who can share an overview? Thanks....
     
 
  Contingency Theory in 2 Countries
I am writing on how contingency theory may be applied to leaders who share one culture, but reside in two different countires. Any thoughts?...
     
 
  Contingency Theory Strengths
What are the strengths of contingency theory when applied to a company's organization?...
     
 
  Why Fiedler's Contingency Theory?
Justify why you would recommend Fiedler's Contingency Theory to any organisation......
     
 
  Major Weeknesses of Contigency Leadership Approach
What are the weaknesses of the Contigency Leadership Approach?...
     
 
  Contingencies Affecting Management Development
I would like to know the challenges of the environment that can affect management development. Are there any thought of schools on it....
     
 
  Individual Unit of Analysis
Hi, is there any conceptual framework of contingency theory for individual unit of analysis? Thank you....
     
 
  Mission and Objectives > Leadership
I would say the leadership styles / theories would be dependent on a company's level of understanding of its mission and objectives. A clear leadership theory/style would, I believe, be developed through a clear mission and objectives of the company...
     
 
  Discuss Contingency Theory
The contingency theory accepts that no one leadership style can be effective in all situations and thus the style used will be directed by a number of factors. Please discuss......
     
 
  Donaldson's Neocontingency Model
In his 1995 book "American anti-management theories of organization: A critique of paradigm proliferation", L. Donaldson developed his "Neocontingency Model". Donaldson argues that when a fit exists between (internal or external) contingencies and or...
     
 
  Right Way In Information Age
It was easy to develop a theory in the last century and to ensure that it is valid in a particular environment. However, as information started flooding this world in the digital era, the validity of many theories lost its significance in the larger ...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 权变理论 高级帐户
  The Cynefin Framework
A recent application of contingency thinking on decision-making is the Cynefin framework described by David J. Snowden and Mary E. Boone in the HBR of Nov 2007. They distinguish between 5 decision-making contexts, each requiring its own decisi...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Contingency Theory 高级帐户
 

Cognitive Resource Theory

Fiedler more recently proposed a cognitive resource theory that suggested that leader intelligence and experience can influence group performan...
Usage (application)When and How the Leader's Intelligence and Experience Influence Group Performance
 
 
 

Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Contingency Theory

Effective leaders seek a match between their preferred style and the situation and, if necessary, change the situation to fit their preferred style. I...
Usage (application)Preferred Leadership Styles
 
 
 

How to Develop your Own Leadership Philosophy

In an article When should a leader be directive or empowering? How to develop your own situational theory of leadership, the best way to develop you...
Usage (application)Leadership/Management Development, Coaching, Mentoring
 
 
 

Quotes on Contingency

Circumstances? I make circumstances!
Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821, French Emperor

Know nature and know the situation: Triumph complete...
Usage (application)Nature of contingency
 
 
 

How to Use Counterintuition to Fight 5 Frequent Decision Making Errors

Mauboussin describes five mistakes in decision making that are often made and result in making the wrong decisions. These five mistakes are:
1...
Usage (application)Strategic Decision Making, Dealing with Complexity, Dealing with Uncertainty, Strategy
 
 

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比较:  Situational Leadership[情境领导]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]  |  Ten Schools of Thought[战略思想十大流派]  |  Theory of Mechanistic and Organic Systems[机械/有机系统论]  |  Six Change Approaches[六变革法]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  Culture Types[文化类型]  |  Changing Organization Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  Moral Purpose[道德目的]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]


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