Knowledge Management[知识管理]
(Collison Parcell)

知识中心

   

知识与实践经验的学习、获取、分享以及开发。 Collison和Parcell的Knowledge Management[知识管理]解析。 (‘01)

投稿人: Chris Collison

目录

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什么是知识管理? 释义

Chris CollisonGeoff Parcell提出的知识管理法(Knowledge Management),是一个学习、获取、分享以及开发知识与实践经验的架构。


知识管理这个概念事实上是一种矛盾修饰法——没有哪一个管理人员能够管理知识资产,它依附于员工体内,大抵只能通过对话交流来分享。

尽管“什么你做”这样的情形,也是指: 管理一种知识环境,在这种环境下,知识被产生、发现、获取、分享、萃取、确认、转移、调整、采用以及应用。 从而为组织创造价值。

知识迅速繁衍的环境:

  • 正确的条件。 可靠的基础设施和组织架构有助于产生创新精神。
  • 正确的方法。 学习的方法、模型和流程。
  • 正确的行动。 由此,人们本能地寻找、分享和使用知识。
  • 正确的领导力。 在正确领导之下,学习与分享成为可期待的、角色明确的活动。

知识管理为组织活动前、中、后期的学习行为提供了大量的实用工具和辅助技术。
这种干预知识学习的方法如果能够通过合适手段,比如通过人际网络(社区)、或通过成文化、规范化且不断更新的“知识产品”进行传播分享,那么它的裨益将会成倍提高。


知识管理法的起源 历史

知识管理起源于美国陆军以及其他一些组织的学习管理实践活动,1998年,英国石油公司(BP)的一个知识管理团队借鉴了这些成功经验,提出了知识管理的概念。2001年,CollisonParcell出版了《Learning to Fly, lessons from one of the world’s leading knowledge companies》(中文译名《英国石油公司组织学习最佳实践》),在书中系统阐述了知识管理。 新书出版伊始,就诞生了一个围绕这一方法进行知识管理实践的组织,现在这一组织的成员已超过700人,他们来自各行各业。 2005年,《Learning to Fly》的新版问世,在书中,CollisonParcell展示了知识管理的可转移性,以及其他10个组织的知识管理案例。 现在,从联合国到戴比尔斯(De Beers,全球最大的钻石公司,译者注),从英国广播公司(BBC)到南威尔士的小学校,开始广泛应用知识管理法。 此外,知识管理的内容已经走进了大部分商学院的课堂,如 英国的Henley&Cranfield管理学校。


Collison Parcell Knowledge Management[知识管理]知识管理法的运用 应用

  • 防范重复发明轮问题(Wheel Reinvention Problem),尤其是在大型的国际化组织中尤为重要。
  • 加速并购后的整合进程。
  • 辨识、捕获以及分享组织内的好经验。
  • 应对抑制组织发展的文化壁垒问题,如“非我发明症”(Not Invented Here)。
  • 构建、培育以及支持学习、实践的网络和组织。
  • 开创持续学习、提高的文化氛围。
  • 通过领导力介入,强化知识分享等正确行为。

知识管理法步骤 流程

请参见右图。

  • 个人和集体在一些列组织目标上达成一致意见。 然后,他们即运用知识朝向目标努力,最终产生价值。 那么从何处入手,对知识管理进行有效干预呢?
  • 注意力应该着重放在“知识运用圈”(Using Knowledge Circle)上。 如果在组织活动前、中、后期,你都能积极鼓舞、启发同伴,那么结果会怎样呢? 简单的学习过程,例如帮助同事学习解惑、对完毕的项目、行动进行回顾,对知识管理都有积极的贡献作用,即帮助引出新的知识。这些知识可能早就萦绕在组织成员的脑海里,只是一直没有人去触发。
  • 所有这些学习活动都免不了要牵连到一种所谓的“知识银行”(Knowledge Bank)。 在你做任何事情之前你总会想到先要学习,这时你就需要从知识银行里取出知识。 当你在想要有所贡献、有所作为的领域里已经学到了知识的时候,你就要往知识银行里存入知识。
  • 当此过程中,你的捕捉以及萃取知识的能力就显得尤为重要。 然而,这些还不是“故事”的全貌。 事实上,一个人是不可能捕获、掌握所有知识的,所以将那些掌握着重要知识、有深刻见识的人与组织联系起来,鼓励他们阐释、更新所占有的知识,从而使这些知识成为组织的信息资源。
  • 知识管理模型架构中的组织环境(或文化),对于知识共享的促进和保持也是非常重要的, 这具体反映在正确的领导行为上。知识管理最终将植入组织的核心流程中,并成为一种“无意识的竞争力”。

知识管理架构的优势 优点

  • 较少的知识汲取,更多的知识回报! 关系到组织中每一位成员的学习活动。
  • 提高组织识别,传输典范实践。
  • 对生产企业而言,学习提高将加速产品发展、持续改进的周期。
  • 有效防止“重复发明轮”错误。
  • 识别和克服“非我发明”症。
  • 提高知识共享的水平,改进知识共享的方式。
  • 方法手段值得信赖。 其效果已为包括英国石油公司(BP)在内的国际企业、教育机构、国际政府组织以及NGO等各界的成功实践所证明。

知识管理法的局限 缺点

  • 知识管理不仅仅是一项拥有“快速修复”特征的管理技术,更是一种综合的整体管理方法,它需要组织全体人员自觉主动地应对来自底涵文化和整个组织流程的挑战。
  • 比较而言,知识管理对于大型的、分布式的组织更具实用性, 尽管它对于中小企业(SMEs)同样有效。
  • 表面看上去非常简单,具有迷惑性。
  • 知识管理常常被信息管理技术的提供商所误解, 其主要原因是,对于管理的偏见。

知识管理的假定 条件

  • 如果组织运作积极、高效,它将会获得更大的收益。
  • 对于那些顾客服务有时间要求的公司来说,它们尤为需要关注带来收益的知识管理到底于何处产生价值。

参考书: Collison & Parcell - Learning to Fly [中译本《英国石油公司组织学习最佳实践》,机械工业出版社,2003] -


参见: Chris Collison的网站


知识管理论坛
  How to Design a Knowledge Transfer Template?
What are the major issues that must be considered when designing a Knowledge Transfer Template?
I am trying to find ways to improve knowledge transfer within a vocational institution (education that prepares people for specific trades, crafts an...
     
 
  Components of Knowledge Sharing Systems
What are the essential components of knowledge sharing systems in an organization?...
     
 
  Knowledge Management in Testing of Software
Kindly can I have your ideas on how knowledge management can be used in software testing? Many thanks....
     
 
  Knowledge to Use Knowledge
Knowledge is found everywhere in organizations. A successful organization has knowledge on how to use pertinent knowledge spread over different heads for the benefit of the organization.
One of such 'knowledges' is utilizing the spirit...
     
 
  Knowledge Capturing Process and Methods
Who can share a more detailed documentation on the knowledge capture process and methods?...
     
 
  The Value of Knowledge Sharing. The Proposition
Knowledge is best conserved through knowledge sharing....
     
 
  The Impact of Knowledge Management in Value Creation
At which precise stage is value created by means of knowledge management and how can this opportunity be leveraged in sustaining firm's overall competitive advantage?...
     
 
  Knowledge Management Social Capability
Culture and people factors can be merged into Knowledge Management Social Capability, and technology and leadership factors can be merged into Knowledge Management Process....
     
 
  Methods for Explicit Knowledge Creation
What are the best methods or solutions to incorporate SECI knowledge into explicit (information) knowledge for daily use of management in organizations....
     
 
  Technical Committees in Knowledge Management
A tool to improve KM is a "Technical Committee" with employees from different processes in the company. This committee has the responsibility to develop and improve processes and products. All information, from customers to final product is shared in...
     
 
  Global KM Acceptance
KM is now globally accepted. In India and other advanced countries for last 2-3 years, there has been a sea-change in terms of accepting KM seriously. If you look at the companies who make superior use of KM are those (Europe, US, Asia, Global) leadi...
     
 
  Success Could Be your Failure?
Make sure that your KM efforts are sustainable over the long run. Once you have proven successes, you will have plenty of people knocking at your door. Do not commit to more than you can handle. Here so, the enlightment process need to change your c...
     
 
  Are People ready to share?
Very appropriately mentioned about the technology vendors. In my last 10 years of working on KM, I agree that culture is a limitation. If people are ready to share, only then can technology bring benefits....
     
 
  Time Spent on Finding and Applying Knowledge
A short article about a study of more than 200 knowledge workers by Al Jacobson and Laurence Prusak (HBR Nov 2006) indicates that 20% of all time is spent on finding information, and 80% on eliciting, interpreting and applying the knowledge....
     
 

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最佳实践 - 知识管理 高级帐户
  Social Networking for Knowledge Sharing
All of you know the value of Facebook and Twitter these days. Have you ever thought of such social network within the organization where all can share their work related knowledge and also share personal feelings. It works wonderfully as it is...
     
 
  Conditions for Knowledge Management
Everyone speaks about knowledge management, what are the conditions that must be met? Why? Thank you....
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Knowledge Management 高级帐户
 

Barriers that Hinder Effective Knowledge Sharing

According to Chris Collison, there are seven common barriers or syndromes that hinder effective knowledge sharing and seeking in organizations. The fo...
Usage (application)Effective Knowledge Sharing, Pitfalls to Avoid, Knowledge Management Implementation
 
 
 

How to Identify and Map Knowledge

In his article Knowledge Mapping: The Essentials for Success, Wesley Vestal provides following six tips to identify and map knowledge:
1. Defin...
Usage (application)Knowledge Identification, Knowledge Capturing, Knowledge Storage
 
 
 

Positive Effects of Age Diversity on Company Productivity and (Tacit) Knowledge Sharing

Backes-Gellner and Veen (2013) outlined the main advantages of having a diverse workforce within a company. The following positive effects were pointe...
Usage (application)Tacit Knowledge Transfer, Workforce Productivity, Incentive Management
 
 
 

Critical Activities to Build a Learning Organization

Learning organizations are distinguished because they are undertaking certain activities to foster the internal learning process. Those activities inc...
Usage (application)Implementing Organizational Learning, Best Practices
 
 
 

Capturing Learned Lessons

Knowledge from bad and good experiences will lead you and your organization to better future performance. You can improve your learning culture with <...
Usage (application)How to Capture Organizational Learning? Best Practices
 
 
 

How Culture Levels Explain Failures in Organizational Learning and Innovation

Schein (as cited by Bertagni et al., 2010) tries to elaborate on the question why organizational innovations often fail or are only successful in the ...
Usage (application)Improving Organizational Learning, Organizational Innovation, Changing Organization Cultures
 
 
 

What are Smart Creatives? Traits

To accommodate the strategic demands of the internet age, clever, creative knowledge workers are needed in product/service development, with a lot of ...
Usage (application)R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Innovation, HR, Career Management
 
 
 

People Development Approach for Successful Knowledge Management

People play an important role in Knowledge Management (KM). We all know that. Indeed, the success of KM basically depends on the skills, knowledge and...
Usage (application)Knowledge Management, Career Management, Talent Management, Employee Induction, Human Resource Development
 
 
 

Organizational Problems with Knowledge Workers

Nowadays, many companies engage in a destructive circle of hiring expensive knowledge workers, then laying them off because they are not as productive...
Usage (application)Knowledge Intensive Organizations, Knowledge Management
 
 
 

Knowledge Management Scope

Research by Deishin Lee (HBS) and Eric Van den Steen (MIT) shows that recording mediocre know-how can actually be counter-productive, since such medio...
Usage (application)Knowledge Management, Level of Know-how
 
 
 

Components of Learning Agility

One of the critical factors for achieving organizational agility is learning agility, which refers to the ability and eagerness to learn from experien...
Usage (application)Organizational Agility, Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management
 
 
 

Knowledge Management Focal Point

Research by Deishin Lee (HBS) and Eric Van den Steen (MIT) shows that information about successes is typically more useful than information about fail...
Usage (application)Knowledge Management Focus
 
 

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比较: Organizational Learning[组织学习]  |  Organizational Memory[组织记忆]  |  Bridging Epistemologies[桥接认识论]  |  SECI model[SECI模型]  |  Action Learning[行动学习法]  |  Intellectual Capital Rating[智慧资本评级]  |  Levels of Culture[文化层次]  |  People-CMM[人力资源能力成熟度模式]  |  MAGIC[MAGIC项目]


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