Coaching[教练]

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在特定的时间范围内指导他人学习新知的行为。 Coaching[教练]解析。

投稿人: Guy Bloom

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Coaching[教练]什么是教练? 释义

教练(Coaching)可以被描述为一种方法和技术,通过应用它可以指导一个人在特定的时间范围内学习新知。  


教练有很多种定义。 有如此众多甚至对立的定义,暗示着对教练定义的争论,本身就是一种不切实际的行为(Jackson,2005)。 就连多产的理论作家(Clutterbuck和Megginson,2005)也改变了他们的观点,指出这个领域仍在发展和变革中。 时间倒退至1994年,Garvey提出“一对一帮助”,计划重新定义这个术语,希望“一对一帮助”能从泥泞中再生。虽然这在字符描述上有效,但是在打造术语上却不太自然。


一些学者也曾建议,像希腊神话中门特式的教学就是教练的模范,但是那个导师作为一个工作称谓就有点过于正式。 他们使用“教练”这一称谓,是因为它听起来更合乎感觉(Hudson 1999)。 近来,有些人尝试在这个困局中创造一个一般性的、集合化的概念,然而我们也看到那些在此领域有着卓越表现的学者们并不高兴接受另一方的意见。 他们直截了当地表明,差别导致混淆,或许换用另一个称谓——导师(Mentor)更为妥当。


教练的定义可以简单概括成,“教授别人做某事的过程”(Whitmore,1997)。 或者更完整点: “使学习和发展得以发生并且进而提高的过程”。 要做一个成功的教练需要对过程充分认知和理解,就像技能和技术的种类繁复一样(Parsloe,1999)。 对于教练的解释,各种个人贡献也占了相当大的部分。 启导观认为教练主要与技术相关(Cranwell,2004), 教练的焦点在工作结果上(Megginson和Clutterbuck,1995),且最为重要的焦点是绩效和技能发展(Clutterbuck,2004)。


教练的定义已经发展了很多年, 从那些奇思古怪的、潜在危险的、有些超然的想法——教练最重要的方面就是被接受,被尊重和被照看,而不是在教练人和被教练人之间的信息交换(Olalla,1998), 到商业定义宣告——教练就是一个授权的过程,以提升绩效,实现发展”(Alexander和Renshaw 2005)。 有趣地是,早在1988年Megginson就提出了一个观点:在某些特定阶段,教练在一个人的发展中更为有效。 这样在商业环境中,教练就更着眼于角色、职业和项目了(William, 2000)。 如果采纳“在一个人发展过程中,适当时期的特定的干涉是最有效的方法”这种思路,那么回顾一下教练所干涉的范围就很有必要了。 我们能看到哪些是新内容,哪些是混合了心理学、运动心理学和教育学的教练,以及哪些是正在建立的可信的、有市场的教练。
 

教练的起源 历史

“coach”这个术语最早出现在16世纪,指的是一种运输方式,实际上就是一种马拉的交通工具,起源于一个匈牙利小镇Kocs,(读作“koach”)。 在18世纪中叶,coach这个词用在英国大学校园里,指代帮助学生准备考试的人(Zeus和Skiffington,2005)。 教练(Coaching)则来源于人文心理学,关注于人的尊严和内在价值。


教练在商界

伴随着人文运动的出现,我们看到在商业领域里教练的出现,这能够从当时的杂志里找到佐证: Gorby(1937)描述了老员工培训新员工如何减少浪费,以赢得绩效奖励。 Bigelow(1938)叙述了销售经理培训销售人员。 Mold(1951)报道了“经理当教练”的课程。 Hayden(1956)论证了“穷追到底”式教练提高了评估水平。 Mahler(1964)报道了让他们的经理变成教练的难处。 Gersham (1967)评估监督员在“公作态度&工作绩效”方面的影响。 Tobias(1996)报道了一位取得“44年优异”绩效的管理人员,他曾经接受过“软”技能培训。 尽管都是杂志上的报道,但都是有影响的、典型的跟教练相关的“案例”和“评论”(Zeus & Skiffington, 2005)。最近曼切斯特咨询集团(Manchester Consulting Group)做了一项调查, 发现1996-2000年间,教练项目的ROI达到了5.7 。


生活教练(Life Coaching”作为现代版的定义出现,源于一个应对高中生辍学的培训项目。 这个项目始于1950年代,由YMCA资助, 目标是寻找有效的咨询和学习方法,帮助人们学习心理的和社会的技巧,来应对各种生活问题(Adkins, 2006)。 到了60年代末期,这个项目更为深入具体, 集中于发展中的商业团体所需的、可信的、来自于学术上的教练方法。 1980年代,专业的执行管理和商业培训伴随着一些领导力项目浮现出来(Zeus & Skiffington, 2005)。


真正的突破是体育和商业世界的结合,使得教练得以新生。 Tim Gallwey和他的网球内线游戏,是体育教练在商业环境中的主要催化剂。其后,突出的一些教练还有: John Whitmore(冠军赛车驾驶员),David Hemery(奥运跨栏获奖者)和David Witaker(奥运曲棍球教练)。


教练的现代内涵与建构主义学习理论(Constructionist Learning Theory )密不可分,其认识核心是“对于现实的解读不可能是单独的行为”(Zeus & Skiffington 2005)。 通过这些原理,我们能够更深刻地理解“教练”的诞生, “每一个人无例外地都以自己的经验来构建自己对于这个世界的理解”。 有趣的是,1990年代,教练在一些“准哲学”团体里高潮迭起,那些参与到管理及沟通教练的人特别受到欢迎。 在商业世界呼唤学术性的、规范化的教练模式的同时,这一领域内部对教练的方法、标杆提出了更高的、更严格的要求。 尽管已有形形色色的职业教练,教练的职业化、专业化道路仍有很长的路要走(Grant, 2003b) 。


教练的运用 应用

  • 商业教练。
  • 行政教练。
  • 生活训练。
  • 行为教练。
  • 体育教练。
  • 临床教练。

教练的步骤。 流程

实践中没有普遍接受的教练步骤。


教练的优势。 优点

  • 教练对于个人和商业的显著好处就是提供自我引导式学习。 虽然学习通过教练实现,教练的真正的作用在于其贡献的经验。
  • 研究显示,对于转型和变革中的组织,教练的积极鼓舞作用是显著的。
  • 教练的ROI高于正常的课堂教育,特别是对于管理人员。

教练的局限。 缺点

  • 教练不是良方。 否则,被教练人也会产生依赖性。
  • 可以被产生商业声望,乃至于产生政治影响。
  • 试试告诉你的老板他是个蹩脚的教练!

教练的假设。 条件。

  • 每个人都应对自己的学习负责,所有的学习行为都应该是“被教练的,而不是督导的”。
  • 教练实在是一件再简单不过的事情,却引发出一个让人难以置信的复杂话题, 原因在于教练本身不是一个可以定义的模型,不像用于教练的具体方法、模型,
  • 到目前为止连普遍接受的教练定义都还没有。

参考书: Zeus & Skiffington - The Coaching at Work Toolkit -

参考书: Mary Beth O'Neill - Executive Coaching with Backbone and Heart -

参考书: Bruce Peltier - The Psychology of Executive Coaching -


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比较: Mentoring[启导]  |  Facilitation Styles[引导类型]  |  Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Cultural Intelligence[文化智能]  |  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  4 Dimensions of Relational Work[关系工作的四个类型]  |  马斯洛(Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  ERG Theory[ERG理论]  |  Spiral Dynamics[螺旋动力学]  |  Changing Organizational Cultures[组织文化变革法]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]  |  EPIC ADVISERS[史诗顾问]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]


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