Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie)
(Christensen)

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Het effect van nieuwe technologieŽn (revolutionaire verandering) op het bestaan van een onderneming. Verklaring van Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie) van Clayton Christensen. ('97)

Bijgedragen door: Neusa Hirota

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De vernietigende innovatie van Clayton Christensen

Wat is Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie)? Beschrijving

Het Disruptive Innovation-model van Clayton Christensen is een theorie die kan worden gebruikt voor het beschrijven van het effect van nieuwe technologieŽn (revolutionaire verandering) op het bestaan van een onderneming. Clayton Christensen vond de uitdrukking Ąontwrichtende technologieŽnď voor het eerst uit in 1997, in zijn boek ĄThe Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail".
Hij toonde aan dat telkens weer bijna alle organisaties die Ązijn gestorvenď of verplaatst van hun industrieŽn (wegens een nieuw paradigma van aanbod voor de klant) de verstoring komst konden zien, maar deed niets tot het te laat was.


Door te doen wat goede bedrijven moeten doen - zich richten op de meest winstgevende klanten en hun investeringen focussen daar waar de winstmarges het aantrekkelijkst zijn - zijn de gevestigde industrieleiders op een weg van Ondersteunende Innovaties (Sustaining Innovations) en zijn zij kwetsbaar voor ontwrichtende technologieŽn om hen te begraven. Dit gebeurt omdat de middeltoewijzingsprocessen van gevestigde bedrijven worden ontworpen om winsten te maximaliseren door ondersteunende innovaties, welke hoofdzakelijk het ontwerpen van betere en betere muizenvallen voor bestaande klanten of bewezen marktsegmenten impliceren. Wanneer Ontwrichtende Innovaties opkomen (typisch goedkoper, versies van bestaande producten die eenvoudiger zijn te gebruiken en welke zich richten op de minder gunstige klanten of volledig nieuwe klanten), zijn de gevestigde bedrijven verlamd. Zij zijn bijna altijd eerder gemotiveerd om naar de bovenkant van de markt te gaan dan om deze nieuwe of bodemmarkten te verdedigen, en uiteindelijk verbetert het ontwrichtende innovatieproces zich, steelt meer marktaandeel, en vervangt het regerende product.


Soorten Innovatie

Bedrijven hebben twee basisopties wanneer zij tot doel hebben om de nieuwe groeiondernemingen te bouwen. Zij kunnen proberen om een bestaande markt van een verschanste concurrent af te pakken met behulp van ondersteunende innovaties. Oftewel zij kunnen proberen om een concurrent met behulp van Ontwrichtende Innovaties aan te pakken welke oftewel nieuwe markten creŽren oftewel een plaats veroveren onder de slechtste klanten van een gevestigde speler.

Er zijn twee verschillende soorten Ontwrichtende Innovaties. Het eerste type creŽert een nieuwe markt door zich op niet-consumenten te richten. De tweede concurreert in de onderkant van een bestaande markt.
 

Oorsprong van het Disruptive Innovation model. Geschiedenis

Onderzoek van Christensen en studies in Harvard.


Gebruik van de Disruptive Innovation methode. Toepassingen

  • Allerlei bedrijven - aangezien zij door technologie-innovatie/verandering kunnen worden beÔnvloed.

Stappen in Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie). Proces

  • Het model toont aan dat als de prestatie, welke door de klanten in een bestaande markt wordt geŽist, in de tijd toeneemt, dan ook de prestatie toeneemt die binnen een technologisch paradigma wordt geboden. Vaak heeft de geboden prestatieverbetering een verschillende baan van de baan van prestatieverbetering welke door de klanten wordt geŽist (zie figuur). Als de baanhellingen verschillen, en de geboden prestatie de geŽiste prestatie overschrijdt, kunnen nieuwe technologieŽn die alleen maar concurrerend waren in in verre marktniches migreren naar andere klantennetwerken. Dit voorziet vernieuwers van een vervoermiddel naar nieuwe klanten, die van te voren hun dienstenaanbod als beneden de maat zouden hebben bekeken; en laat hen toe om in gevestigde mainstream markten een nieuwe set prestatie waarde attributen te bieden die nu relevanter zijn dan het huidige paradigma.
  • De verstoring en de commoditisatie gaan in feite hand in hand. Een bedrijf dat teveel biedt, kan eenvoudigweg niet†winnen (een bedrijf dat een product tot een punt verbetert waarbij het voor klanten meer dan goed†genoeg is en waarvoor een premie†betaald moet worden). Oftewel de ontwrichting zal zijn markten stelen, oftewel de commoditisatie zal zijn winsten stelen. Terwijl nieuwe golven van ontwrichting over de industrie walsen, zal de plaats waar het geld zal zitten over de waardeketen naarmate de tijd verstrijkt verschuiven. Terwijl dit gebeurt, zullen bedrijven die zich een plaats in de waardeketen hebben verworven waar de prestatie nog niet goed genoeg is de winst pakken.

Beperkingen van Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie). Nadelen

  • Ontwrichtende Innovatie vereist een afzonderlijk strategieproces. Dit proces moet emergent zijn (d.w.z. zich geleidelijk ontwikkelend)  en geconcentreerd zijn op niet voorziene kansen, problemen en successen, in plaats van gepland en gericht op een beter begrip van wat werkt en wat niet.
  • In plaats van het ontwerpen van producten en diensten die het huidige gedrag van de huidige klanten adresseren, zouden de onderliggende doelstellingen van mensen het ontwerp van innovaties moeten aansturen. Maar te begrijpen†wat mensen werkelijk nodig hebben is verre van gemakkelijk.
  • Ontwrichtende bedrijven kunnen niet zeer snel grote winsten maken, als gevolg van hun aard (gericht op nieuwe markten, of gericht op de onderste regionen van bestaande markten). De verschaffers van risicokapitaal zijn steeds ongeduldiger jegens ondernemingen om winst te maken.

Veronderstellingen van Disruptive Innovation. Voorwaarden

Bedrijven riskeren de dood met besluiten om technologieŽn te negeren die niet de behoeften van hun klanten schijnen te adresseren, omdat deze fataal uitpakken als twee paradigmatische banen van vooruitgang op elkaar inwerken.


Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma -

Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution -

Boek: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next† -


Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie) Forum
  Leapfrogging Technologies by Developing Countries
Leapfrogging is a way for developing countries to benefit from earlier skills and advancements of the developed world by skipping altogether a technological stage. For example, many developing countries have implemented mobile technologies by going w...
     
 
  The Hybrid Innovation Approach to Manage Technological Disruptions
Companies need to carefully think about the timing and way to adopt technological disruptions. Adopting technological disruption too late can squander competitive advantages, but adopting it too early can be devastating as well. Rather than spell doo...
     
 
  Are Clayton Christensenís Disruptive Innovation Characteristics Useful in Practice?
A recent write up published in MIT Sloan Management Review concludes that Disruptive Innovation theory is "not very useful" for making predictions based on research in which 77 cases from Christensenís first two books (The Innovatorís Dilemma and The...
     
 
  What is Disruptive Innovation Exactly? Definition
A "definition" of Disruptive Innovation that's frequently quoted is one which is located on Christensen's website. It reads:
"DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple appli...
     
 
  Is Disruptive Innovation Radical?
Disruptive Innovation is often incorrectly described as a radical rather than incremental change in technology. In fact, one of the fundamental elements of Christensenís work was to illustrate that market incumbents rather than entrants are mainly re...
     
 
  Ways to Incorporate Disruptive Innovation as Part of the Management Agenda
A few days ago I was in a conversation with Adam Hartung, who observed brand managers are constrained, as a matter of practicality, to focusing exclusively on sustaining innovation. They normally donít focus on entirely new, disruptive innovation.
     
 
  Disruptive Innovation: What Causes the Creative Leap?
What causes the difference in magnitude of creative leap? One may create a quantum leap, but other innovations may not be that significant. Is there a process to manifest and channelize creative energy? Obviously many people were and are exist...
     
 
  Is Cirque du Soleil the iPhone or the Seiko of Circus?
An article about the Cirque du Soleil I recently read made me wonder whether we should think of Cirque du Soleil as the iPhone o...
     
 
  Better Input from Consumers Needed for Disruptive Innovation
Technological innovations bring positivity, a better quality of life. But have they considered those without access to normal technology, to achieve current level of innovation?
A little prudence must be used in terms of consumption, since there...
     
 
  The Word 'Disruptive' in Disruptive Innovation
I wonder if the term 'disruptive' is in fact the appropriate word.
If it's agreed that it means: unexpected, large scale, sudden, different approach innovation or large unexpected / clever changes to a product (or something similar) which will c...
     
 
  Disruptive Innovations Question our Knowledge
It's hard to change. This holds for organisations and people. A disruptive innovation questions what we know and exposes that we don't know, what we don't know.
It's an issue of complexity and requires a complex way forward of moving from certai...
     
 
  How to Sustain Disruptive Innovation?
After gaining entry into some (new) market segment through disruptive innovation, how do you SUSTAIN your position and growth...
Does that require other cycles of disruptive innovation, or will regular incremental innovation do?...
     
 
  Distinguishing Three Types of Innovation
Christensen (2014) argues that investing in different types of innovation will influence markets and firms in different ways. Therefore it is important to make a distinction between the different types of innovations, and when assessing them to use a...
     
 
  Leadership Skills / Approaches for Successful Innovation
Innovation leadership requires other approaches than general leadership for the core business. Furr and Dyer (2014) outline some unique leadership skills/approaches required for successful innovation:

1. RATHER THAN DICTATING...
     
 
  WHAT is Being Innovated? The 4 Ps of Innovation
There are actually 4 things or objects that one can innovate:
  1. PRODUCT/SERVICE: Product innova...
     
 
  12 Disruptive Technologies
It is important that business and policy leaders understand which technologies might matter to them and prepare accordingly. But which technologies could drive truly massive economic transformations and disruptions in the coming years? McKinsey recen...
     
 
  How to Develop Disruptive Innovation Skills?
I believe disruptive innovation skills can be mostly taught.
Beyond the associative skills which is cognitive, the other behavioral skills required to be a true innovator are discovery skills - questioning, observing, networking an...
     
 
  Disruptive Innovation or Improved Technology?
Disruptive innovation is only a means of improving existing products as it creates new, better and unexpected sets of values of products. Every modern organization should strive to maneuver by being able to identify trends and disruptors with the abi...
     
 

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Best Practices - Disruptive Innovatie (Ontwrichtende Innovatie) Premium
  How to Find Innovative Ideas? From Analogous Markets...
When trying to find innovative ideas for your organization, several studies have revealed that it is highly valuable to access expertise from outside your area of expertise. This is - according to Frane, Poetz and Schreier (2013) - because the degree...
     
 
  Innovation Strategy: The Three Horizons of Growth (McKinsey)
One of ways of thinking about innovation strategy is to use the 3 Horizons of Growth developed by Steve Coley at McKinsey.
The framework provides a useful mold to formulate an organizationís product and service portfolio strategy. It's a...
     
 
  Strategic Options for Old-Technology Firms
What should be the strategic response of old-technology firms when a promising new technology shows up? Typically firms respond by either
1. Fighting the new technology, or
2. Trying to make a transition to the new technol...
     
 
  Tips for Innovation Strategy
As a part of corporate success factor development process, we have found a need to build up an "Innovation Strategy". Can anybody give good hints or examples of what to or not to take into consideration?...
     
 
  Disruptive versus Incremental Innovation
Typically, Incremental Innovation exploits existing forms or technologies... Improves upon something that already exists or reconfigures an existing form or technology to serve some other purpose... It is other wise called marginal or continuo...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Disruptive Innovation Premium
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application): 5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book ďProduct Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New ProductsĒ, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application): Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application): Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Challenging the Existing Strategic Logic

A tool by Kim and Mauborgne is the "Four Actions Framework". This Four Actions Fr...
Usage (application): Finding New Markets
 
 
 

The Simple-Cheap-Convenient Approach

Based on Christensenís model of disruptive innovation, Norton and Pine argue that experience innovation can effectively disrupt traditional competitor...
Usage (application): Addressing the Unmet Needs of Customers
 
 
 

Distinguish Disruptive Technology Innovation From Disruptive Marketing Innovation!

It is necessary to distinguish between disruptive technology innovation and disruptive marketing innovation, since there is no perfect interaction an...
Usage (application): 2 Distinct Capabilities...
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Ha...
Usage (application): Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
  1. Because the Internet, wireless devices such as mobile phones in co...
    Usage (application): R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application): Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

How to Think Differently in Innovation?

Strategy is always related with risk, due to market volatility. Also todayīs volatility is increasing very fast. So innovate thinking is a must...
Usage (application): How to Be Innovative, Innovative Thinking
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of the perspectives is how compa...
Usage (application): Fundamental Innovation
 
 
 

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Since 50 years, the Pentagonís Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing an incredible amount of breakth...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide information about past beha...
Usage (application): Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
 
 
 

Classes of Innovation | Sources of Innovation

TWO CLASSES OF INNOVATION
Innovation can be triggered or enabled by two broad classes:
  1. KNOWLEDGE PUSH: Innovation triggered...
    Usage (application): Innovation, Creativity, Organizational Innovativeness, Lateral Thinking, Out of the Box Thinking, Blue Ocean Strategy
 
 
 

Why Large Firms are Having Difficulties to Deal with Disruptive Innovations

Christensen explains why many firms, especially large firms, have trouble with adapting and thus with surviving when dealing with external disruptive ...
Usage (application): Innovation Management
 
 
 

Big-Bang Disruption

BBD is a term coined by Accenture gurus Larry Drownes and Paul F. Numes.
Technological innovation lately started out from the low-end. Initially ...
Usage (application): Technological Innovation
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A futurethink 2006 Innovation Tracker Survey mentions:
- Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovation
- Creative think...
Usage (application): Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application): (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

Predecessor of Christensen

The theory of Disruptive Innovation was actually not created by Christensen. It was described by Thomas Hugues, MIT Press in 1984 in the paper "The Ev...
Usage (application): Technology-driven Change Theory
 
 
 

How BOP Countries Can Disrupt Western Markets

After the Second World War, Japan started to develop fast as a result of their disruptive innovation strategy. This disruptive innovation process init...
Usage (application): Disruptive Innovation, Bottom of the Pyramid, Country-level Strategy
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through Iterative Rapid-cycle Prototyping

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application): Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 
 

Misunderstandings on the Concept of Disruptive Innovations

In their paper ďA Reflective Review of Disruptive Innovation TheoryĒ, the authors mention three misunderstandings on the concept of disruptive innovat...
Usage (application): Technology Innovation
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote ďStructure of Scientific RevolutionsĒ, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application): Adoption of New Technologies
 
 
 

Geographic Dimension to Explain Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries

In the past, it was generally thought that the Western countries were the main sources of innovation while developing countries were seen as recipient...
Usage (application): Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries
 
 

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