Disruptive Innovation [파괴적 혁신]
(Christensen)

지식 센터

   

신기술(혁명적인 변화)가 기업의 존재에 미치는 영향. Clayton Christensen의 파괴적 혁신의 설명. ('97)

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목차

  1. 요약
  2. 포럼
  3. 모범 사례
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 자료
  6. 인쇄

Clayton Christensen 혼란을 일으키는 혁신

파괴적 혁신이란 무엇인가? 기술

Clayton Christensen 파괴적 혁신모델은 신기술(혁명적 변화)이 기업의 존재에 미치는 영향을 기술하는 데 사용될 수 있는 이론이다. Clayton Christensen는 1997년 그의 저서 "The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail" 에서 "파괴적 기술"이란 말을 처음 사용하였다.
그는 몇번이고 반복해서 거의 모든 조직들이 다가오는 파괴를 볼 수 있음에도 불구하고 너무 늦을 때까지 아무것도 하지 않아서 결국 (새로운 패러다임의 고객제안의 등장으로) 사라지거나 대체되어 버린 예를 보여주고 있다.


최고의 수익을 가져다 주는 고객에게 서비스하고, 가장 매력적인 수익을 내는 곳에 투자를 집중해야 하는 것과 같이 좋은 기업이 해야만 하는 것을 함으로써, 기존의 산업의 리더들은 지속적인 혁신을 해야만하고, 파괴적인 기술이 그들을 묻어버리도록 자신들을 방치하고 있다. 이것이 발생하는 이유는, 기존 기업의 자원배분 프로세스는 본질적으로 기존 고객이나 검증된 세분시장 고객을 위해 더 나은 신제품을 디자인해야 하는 지속가능한 혁신을 통해서 이윤을 극대화하도록 설계되었기 때문이다. 파괴적 혁신(전형적으로 하부시장 또는 완전히 새로운 고객을 타겟으로 기존 제품을 더 저렴하고 단순하게 사용하도록 한 제품)이 출현할 때, 기존 기업들은 마비된다. 그들은 거의 항상 이러한 새로운 또는 하부시장(을 방어하기 보다는 상부시장(up-market)으로 진출하려고 한다. 그리고 궁극적으로 파괴적 혁신이 개선되고 시장점유율을 높이고 기존의 군림하는 제품을 대체한다.


혁신의 유형

기업은 새로운 성장 비즈니즈를 찾으려할 때 2가지 기본적인 옵션을 갖고 있다. 그들은 지속적 혁신으로 방어적인 경쟁자로부터 기존의 시장을 차지하려고 시도할 수 있다. 또는 새로운 시장을 창출하거나 현재의 악질고객층에 뿌리를 내리는 파괴적 혁신으로 경쟁자들을 제압하려고 시도할 수 있다.

2가지 특별한 유형의 파괴적 혁신이 있다. 첫번째 유형은 비소비자를 타겟으로 한 신시장을 창출한다. 두번째는 기존시장 중 하부시장(low end)에서 경쟁한다.
 

파괴적 혁신 모델의 유래. 역사

하버드에서 Christensen의 연구 및 학문.


파괴적 혁신방법의 활용. 응용

  • 모든 종류의 기업은 기술적 혁신/변화에 의해 영향을 받을 수 있기 때문이다.

파괴적 혁신의 단계. 프로세스

  • 모델은 기존시장의 고객들이 요구하는 성능이 시간이 지남에 따라 증가될 때, 기술적 패러다임내에서 제공되는 성능 역시 늘어나는 것을 보여준다. 종종 제공된 성능의 개선은 고객이 요구하는 성능개선의 경로와 다른 경로를 가진다(그림 참조). 경로가 다르고, 제공된 성능이 요구성능을 능가할 때, 외딴 시장에서 단지 성능면에서 경쟁력을 가졌던 새로운 기술은 다른 고객의 네트워크속으로 옮겨갈 수 있다. 이것은 혁신자들에게 새로운 고객 즉, 이전에는 그들의 제안을 표준이하로 보았던 고객들에게 접근할 수 있는 수단을 제공한다. 그리고 그들로 하여금 기존의 주류시장에 현재의 패러다임보다 더욱 적절한 새로운 구성의 성능좋은 가치를 제공하게 할 수 있게 해준다.
  • 파괴와 제품의 범용화는 사실 함께 간다. 지나쳐버린 회사는 승리할 수 없다(고객이 사용하고 프리미엄을 지불할만큼 충분한 선까지 제품을 개선하는 기업). 파괴가 시장을 석권하거나 또는 제품의 범용화가 시장의 이익을 가져갈 것이다. 새로운 파괴의 물결이 한 산업을 휩쓸때, 자본이 있어야 할 곳은 가치사슬을 시간이 지남에 따라 따라서 움직인다. 파괴적 혁신이 일어나는 동안, 아직 충분한 성과를 내지 않는 가치사슬상에 자신을 포지셔닝시키고 있는 기업은 수익을 낼 수 있을 것이다.

파괴적 혁신의 한계. 단점

  • 파괴적 혁신은 별개의 전략 과정을 요구한다. 이러한 과정은 무엇이 효과적이고 아닌지에 대한 이해의 개선을 의도하고 집중하는 것보다는, 예상치않은 기회, 문제와 성공에 주의를 기울이고 집중해야 한다.
  • 현재고객의 현재 행동을 반영하는 제품과 서비스를 설계하는 대신에, 사람들의 이면의 목적들을 보면 혁신의 설계에 정보를 얻을 수 있다. 사람들이 정말 필요로하는 것을 이해하는 것은 결코 쉬운 것만은 아니다.
  • 파괴적인 사업은 본질적으로 단기간내에 큰 수익을 달성할 수는 없다 (새로운 시장 또는 기존시장의 하부시장(low end)을 대상으로 하고 있으므로) 벤처 투자자들은 사업이 수익을 내는 것에 점점 더 조급해지고 있다.

파괴적 혁신의 가정. 조건

기업들은 고객의 니즈를 반영하지 않는 것처럼 보이는 기술을 무시하는 결정으로 존폐의 위기에 처해진다. 왜냐하면 그러한 기술들은 2가지 진보의 패러다임적인 경로가 상호작용할 때 치명적이 되기 때문이다.


참고도서: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma -

참고도서: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution -

참고도서: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next  -


파괴적 혁신 포럼
  Leapfrogging Technologies by Developing Countries
Leapfrogging is a way for developing countries to benefit from earlier skills and advancements of the developed world by skipping altogether a technological stage. For example, many developing countries have implemented mobile technologies by going w...
     
 
  The Hybrid Innovation Approach to Manage Technological Disruptions
Companies need to carefully think about the timing and way to adopt technological disruptions. Adopting technological disruption too late can squander competitive advantages, but adopting it too early can be devastating as well. Rather than spell doo...
     
 
  Are Clayton Christensens Disruptive Innovation Characteristics Useful in Practice?
A recent write up published in MIT Sloan Management Review concludes that Disruptive Innovation theory is "not very useful" for making predictions based on research in which 77 cases from Christensens first two books (The Innovators Dilemma and The...
     
 
  What is Disruptive Innovation Exactly? Definition
A "definition" of Disruptive Innovation that's frequently quoted is one which is located on Christensen's website. It reads:
"DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple appli...
     
 
  Is Disruptive Innovation Radical?
Disruptive Innovation is often incorrectly described as a radical rather than incremental change in technology. In fact, one of the fundamental elements of Christensens work was to illustrate that market incumbents rather than entrants are mainly re...
     
 
  Ways to Incorporate Disruptive Innovation as Part of the Management Agenda
A few days ago I was in a conversation with Adam Hartung, who observed brand managers are constrained, as a matter of practicality, to focusing exclusively on sustaining innovation. They normally dont focus on entirely new, disruptive innovation.
     
 
  Disruptive Innovation: What Causes the Creative Leap?
What causes the difference in magnitude of creative leap? One may create a quantum leap, but other innovations may not be that significant. Is there a process to manifest and channelize creative energy? Obviously many people were and are exist...
     
 
  Is Cirque du Soleil the iPhone or the Seiko of Circus?
An article about the Cirque du Soleil I recently read made me wonder whether we should think of Cirque du Soleil as the iPhone o...
     
 
  Better Input from Consumers Needed for Disruptive Innovation
Technological innovations bring positivity, a better quality of life. But have they considered those without access to normal technology, to achieve current level of innovation?
A little prudence must be used in terms of consumption, since there...
     
 
  The Word 'Disruptive' in Disruptive Innovation
I wonder if the term 'disruptive' is in fact the appropriate word.
If it's agreed that it means: unexpected, large scale, sudden, different approach innovation or large unexpected / clever changes to a product (or something similar) which will c...
     
 
  Disruptive Innovations Question our Knowledge
It's hard to change. This holds for organisations and people. A disruptive innovation questions what we know and exposes that we don't know, what we don't know.
It's an issue of complexity and requires a complex way forward of moving from certai...
     
 
  How to Sustain Disruptive Innovation?
After gaining entry into some (new) market segment through disruptive innovation, how do you SUSTAIN your position and growth...
Does that require other cycles of disruptive innovation, or will regular incremental innovation do?...
     
 
  Distinguishing Three Types of Innovation
Christensen (2014) argues that investing in different types of innovation will influence markets and firms in different ways. Therefore it is important to make a distinction between the different types of innovations, and when assessing them to use a...
     
 
  Leadership Skills / Approaches for Successful Innovation
Innovation leadership requires other approaches than general leadership for the core business. Furr and Dyer (2014) outline some unique leadership skills/approaches required for successful innovation:

1. RATHER THAN DICTATING...
     
 
  WHAT is Being Innovated? The 4 Ps of Innovation
There are actually 4 things or objects that one can innovate:
  1. PRODUCT/SERVICE: Product innova...
     
 
  12 Disruptive Technologies
It is important that business and policy leaders understand which technologies might matter to them and prepare accordingly. But which technologies could drive truly massive economic transformations and disruptions in the coming years? McKinsey recen...
     
 
  How to Develop Disruptive Innovation Skills?
I believe disruptive innovation skills can be mostly taught.
Beyond the associative skills which is cognitive, the other behavioral skills required to be a true innovator are discovery skills - questioning, observing, networking an...
     
 
  Disruptive Innovation or Improved Technology?
Disruptive innovation is only a means of improving existing products as it creates new, better and unexpected sets of values of products. Every modern organization should strive to maneuver by being able to identify trends and disruptors with the abi...
     
 

파괴적 혁신 시그(SIG)


시그(SIG)

파괴적 혁신 교육 및 이벤트


교육, 세미나 및 이벤트 찾기


모범 사례 - 파괴적 혁신 프리미엄
  How to Find Innovative Ideas? From Analogous Markets...
When trying to find innovative ideas for your organization, several studies have revealed that it is highly valuable to access expertise from outside your area of expertise. This is - according to Frane, Poetz and Schreier (2013) - because the degree...
     
 
  Innovation Strategy: The Three Horizons of Growth (McKinsey)
One of ways of thinking about innovation strategy is to use the 3 Horizons of Growth developed by Steve Coley at McKinsey.
The framework provides a useful mold to formulate an organizations product and service portfolio strategy. It's a...
     
 
  Strategic Options for Old-Technology Firms
What should be the strategic response of old-technology firms when a promising new technology shows up? Typically firms respond by either
1. Fighting the new technology, or
2. Trying to make a transition to the new technol...
     
 
  Tips for Innovation Strategy
As a part of corporate success factor development process, we have found a need to build up an "Innovation Strategy". Can anybody give good hints or examples of what to or not to take into consideration?...
     
 
  Disruptive versus Incremental Innovation
Typically, Incremental Innovation exploits existing forms or technologies... Improves upon something that already exists or reconfigures an existing form or technology to serve some other purpose... It is other wise called marginal or continuo...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Disruptive Innovation 프리미엄
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application) : 5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application) : Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application) : Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Challenging the Existing Strategic Logic

A tool by Kim and Mauborgne is the "Four Actions Framework". This Four Actions Fr...
Usage (application) : Finding New Markets
 
 
 

The Simple-Cheap-Convenient Approach

Based on Christensens model of disruptive innovation, Norton and Pine argue that experience innovation can effectively disrupt traditional competitor...
Usage (application) : Addressing the Unmet Needs of Customers
 
 
 

Distinguish Disruptive Technology Innovation From Disruptive Marketing Innovation!

It is necessary to distinguish between disruptive technology innovation and disruptive marketing innovation, since there is no perfect interaction an...
Usage (application) : 2 Distinct Capabilities...
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Ha...
Usage (application) : Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
  1. Because the Internet, wireless devices such as mobile phones in co...
    Usage (application) : R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application) : Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

How to Think Differently in Innovation?

Strategy is always related with risk, due to market volatility. Also todays volatility is increasing very fast. So innovate thinking is a must...
Usage (application) : How to Be Innovative, Innovative Thinking
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application) : Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of the perspectives is how compa...
Usage (application) : Fundamental Innovation
 
 
 

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Since 50 years, the Pentagons Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing an incredible amount of breakth...
Usage (application) : Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide information about past beha...
Usage (application) : Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
 
 
 

Classes of Innovation | Sources of Innovation

TWO CLASSES OF INNOVATION
Innovation can be triggered or enabled by two broad classes:
  1. KNOWLEDGE PUSH: Innovation triggered...
    Usage (application) : Innovation, Creativity, Organizational Innovativeness, Lateral Thinking, Out of the Box Thinking, Blue Ocean Strategy
 
 
 

Why Large Firms are Having Difficulties to Deal with Disruptive Innovations

Christensen explains why many firms, especially large firms, have trouble with adapting and thus with surviving when dealing with external disruptive ...
Usage (application) : Innovation Management
 
 
 

Big-Bang Disruption

BBD is a term coined by Accenture gurus Larry Drownes and Paul F. Numes.
Technological innovation lately started out from the low-end. Initially ...
Usage (application) : Technological Innovation
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A futurethink 2006 Innovation Tracker Survey mentions:
- Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovation
- Creative think...
Usage (application) : Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application) : (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

Predecessor of Christensen

The theory of Disruptive Innovation was actually not created by Christensen. It was described by Thomas Hugues, MIT Press in 1984 in the paper "The Ev...
Usage (application) : Technology-driven Change Theory
 
 
 

How BOP Countries Can Disrupt Western Markets

After the Second World War, Japan started to develop fast as a result of their disruptive innovation strategy. This disruptive innovation process init...
Usage (application) : Disruptive Innovation, Bottom of the Pyramid, Country-level Strategy
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through Iterative Rapid-cycle Prototyping

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application) : Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 
 

Misunderstandings on the Concept of Disruptive Innovations

In their paper A Reflective Review of Disruptive Innovation Theory, the authors mention three misunderstandings on the concept of disruptive innovat...
Usage (application) : Technology Innovation
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application) : Adoption of New Technologies
 
 
 

Geographic Dimension to Explain Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries

In the past, it was generally thought that the Western countries were the main sources of innovation while developing countries were seen as recipient...
Usage (application) : Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries
 
 

자료 - 파괴적 혁신 프리미엄
 

뉴스

파괴적 혁신
     
 

뉴스

파괴적 혁신
     
 

영화

파괴적 혁신
     
 

영화

파괴적 혁신
     
 

프리젠 테이션

파괴적 혁신
     
 

프리젠 테이션

파괴적 혁신
     
 

파괴적 혁신
     
 

파괴적 혁신
     

관련 개념:  PLC(제품 수명주기)  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy [네트워크 경제의 12원칙]  |  Bass Diffusion Model [Bass확산모델]  |  Ten Schools of Thought [10대 전략경영사상]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy [블루오션전략]  |  Positioning [포지셔닝]  |  Innovation Adoption Curve [혁신수용모델]  |  마케팅 믹스  |  Forget Borrow Learn 모형  |  4 Trajectories of Industry Change [산업변화의 괘적모델]  |  Co-Creation [코크리에이션, 소비자연계가치창조]  |  Three Dimensional Business Definition [3 차원 사업 정의]


다른 페이지로 이동: Change & Organization [변화와 조직]  |  마케팅  |  전략


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