Innovación Disruptiva
Christensen

Centro de Conocimiento

   

Impacto de las nuevas tecnologías (cambio revolucionario) en la existencia de una firma. Descripción del Innovación Disruptiva (Disruptive Innovation) de Clayton Christensen. ('97)

Aporte de: Neusa Hirota

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Innovación quebrantadora de Clayton Christensen

¿qué es la Innovación Disruptiva? Explicación

El modelo de Innovación Disruptiva de Clayton Christensen es una teoría que se puede utilizar para describir el impacto de las nuevas tecnologías (cambio revolucionario) en la existencia de una firma. Clayton Christensen primero acuñó las tecnologías “quebrantadoras” de la frase en 1997, en su libro “el dilema del innovador: Cuando las nuevas tecnologías hacen las grandes firmas fallar”.
Él mostró que repetidamente casi todas las organizaciones que “murieron” o fueron desplazadas de sus industrias (debido a un nuevo paradigma de ofertas al cliente) pudieron haber visto esta disrupción, pero no notaron nada sino hasta que fue demasiado tarde.


Haciendo lo que se supone que hacen las buenas compañías - atender a sus clientes más rentables y dirigiendo el enfoque de sus inversiones donde están los márgenes más atractivos de rentabilidad - los líderes establecidos de la industria, están en una trayectoria de innovaciones sostenidas y quedan abiertos para que las innovaciones radicales no los entierren. Esto sucede porque los procesos de asignación de recursos de las compañías se diseñan para maximizar beneficios a través de las innovaciones sostenibles, que esencialmente implica diseñar, una cada vez mejor, trampa de ratón para los clientes existentes o los segmentos de mercado más atractivos. Cuando emergen las innovaciones radicales (típicamente nuevas versiones de productos ya existentes, pero más baratos y simples de usar, que apuntan a clientes marginales o a clientes enteramente a nuevos), las compañías establecidas están paralizadas. Ellas estan casi siempre motivadas para ir por más mercado que para defender mercados nuevos o marginales, y la Innovación Disruptiva mejora, roba, más participación de mercado, y substituye en última instancia, al producto reinante.


Tipos de innovación

Las compañías tienen dos opciones básicas cuando buscan construir negocios florecientes. Pueden intentar tomar un mercado existente de un competidor atrincherado con innovaciones sostenibles. O pueden intentar tomar parte de los mercados nuevos que ha creado un competidor con innovaciones radicales o sino, "robándole" alguno de los clientes que este competidor considera como no atractivos para su cartera.

Hay dos tipos distintos de Innovación Disruptiva. El primer tipo crea un nuevo mercado apuntando a no consumidores. El segundo compite en el extremo inferior de un mercado establecido.
 

Origen del modelo del Innovación Disruptiva. Historia

Investigación y estudios de Christensen en Harvard.


Uso del método de Innovación Disruptiva. Aplicaciones

  • En toda las clases de compañías - que puedan ser afectadas por la innovación tecnológica/cambio.

Pasos de la Innovación Disruptiva. Proceso

  • El modelo muestra que, como el desempeño exigido por los clientes de un mercado existente aumenta luego en un cierto plazo, entonces,también lo hace el desempeño proporcionado dentro de un paradigma tecnológico. La mejoría del desempeño proporcionado tiene a menudo una trayectoria distinta a la trayectoria de la mejoría del desempeño exigida por los clientes (véase el recuadro). Cuando difieren las cuestas de la trayectoria, y el desempeño proporcionado excede el desempeño exigido, las nuevas tecnologías que eran solamente competitivas en alejados nichos de mercado, pueden emigrar hacia otras redes de clientes. Esto provee a los innovadores de un vehículo para llegar a clientes nuevos, que anteriormente podrían haber visto su oferta como inferior al promedio; y les permite ofrecer a estos mercados establecidos un nuevo grupo de atributos de valor del desempeño que ahora son más relevantes que los del paradigma actual.
  • La interrupción y la acomodación van realmente de común acuerdo. Una compañía que llega más allá, no simplemente gana (una firma que mejora un producto al punto que es considerada más que buena, es normal que reciba un margen adicional por dichos productos). O la interrupción robará sus mercados, o la acomodación robará sus beneficios. Mientras que las ondas nuevas de la innovación barren una industria, el lugar donde estará el dinero se desviará a través de la cadena de valor a través del tiempo. Mientras que esto sucede, las compañías que se han posicionado en un punto de la cadena de valor donde el desempeño no es todavía suficientemente bueno, capturarán el beneficio.

Limitaciones de la Innovación Disruptiva. Desventajas

  • El Innovación Disruptiva requiere un proceso separado de la estrategia. Este proceso debe ser emergente y centrado en las oportunidades inesperadas, problemas y éxitos, más bien que previsto y centrado en la comprensión mejorada de qué trabaja y de qué no lo hace.
  • En vez de diseñar los productos y los servicios que atienden el comportamiento actual de clientes actuales, los planes subyacentes del personal deben dirigirse al diseño de innovaciones. Entender lo que realmente necesita la gente está sin embargo lejos de ser fácil.
  • Los negocios quebrantadores no pueden lograr los beneficios grandes muy rápidos, pagado a a su naturaleza (que trata nuevos mercados, o tratando el extremo inferior de mercados existentes). Los capitalistas de las empresa son cada vez más impacientes para que los negocios entreguen beneficios.

Supuestos de la Innovación Disruptiva. Condiciones

Muerte del riesgo de las compañías con las decisiones para no hacer caso de las tecnologías que no aparecen tratar sus necesidades de clientes, como llegan a ser fatales cuando la trayectoria paradigmática dos del progreso interactiva.


Libro: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Dilemma -

Libro: Clayton M. Christensen - The Innovator's Solution -

Libro: Clayton M. Christensen - Seeing What's Next  -


Foro de Innovación Disruptiva
  El Exito de la Innovacion Radical
Buen dia amigos, el exito de la innovacion radical, ya que es perturbadora, segun experimente, depende de la madurez de la organizacion a quien le toca sufrirla. Digo sufrirla porque lo nuevo y distinto suele generar resistencia....
     
 
  Leapfrogging Technologies by Developing Countries
Leapfrogging is a way for developing countries to benefit from earlier skills and advancements of the developed world by skipping altogether a technological stage. For example, many developing countries have implemented mobile technologies by going w...
     
 
  The Hybrid Innovation Approach to Manage Technological Disruptions
Companies need to carefully think about the timing and way to adopt technological disruptions. Adopting technological disruption too late can squander competitive advantages, but adopting it too early can be devastating as well. Rather than spell doo...
     
 
  Are Clayton Christensen’s Disruptive Innovation Characteristics Useful in Practice?
A recent write up published in MIT Sloan Management Review concludes that Disruptive Innovation theory is "not very useful" for making predictions based on research in which 77 cases from Christensen’s first two books (The Innovator’s Dilemma and The...
     
 
  What is Disruptive Innovation Exactly? Definition
A "definition" of Disruptive Innovation that's frequently quoted is one which is located on Christensen's website. It reads:
"DISRUPTIVE INNOVATION describes a process by which a product or service takes root initially in simple appli...
     
 
  Is Disruptive Innovation Radical?
Disruptive Innovation is often incorrectly described as a radical rather than incremental change in technology. In fact, one of the fundamental elements of Christensen’s work was to illustrate that market incumbents rather than entrants are mainly re...
     
 
  Ways to Incorporate Disruptive Innovation as Part of the Management Agenda
A few days ago I was in a conversation with Adam Hartung, who observed brand managers are constrained, as a matter of practicality, to focusing exclusively on sustaining innovation. They normally don’t focus on entirely new, disruptive innovation.
     
 
  Disruptive Innovation: What Causes the Creative Leap?
What causes the difference in magnitude of creative leap? One may create a quantum leap, but other innovations may not be that significant. Is there a process to manifest and channelize creative energy? Obviously many people were and are exist...
     
 
  Is Cirque du Soleil the iPhone or the Seiko of Circus?
An article about the Cirque du Soleil I recently read made me wonder whether we should think of Cirque du Soleil as the iPhone o...
     
 
  Better Input from Consumers Needed for Disruptive Innovation
Technological innovations bring positivity, a better quality of life. But have they considered those without access to normal technology, to achieve current level of innovation?
A little prudence must be used in terms of consumption, since there...
     
 
  The Word 'Disruptive' in Disruptive Innovation
I wonder if the term 'disruptive' is in fact the appropriate word.
If it's agreed that it means: unexpected, large scale, sudden, different approach innovation or large unexpected / clever changes to a product (or something similar) which will c...
     
 
  Disruptive Innovations Question our Knowledge
It's hard to change. This holds for organisations and people. A disruptive innovation questions what we know and exposes that we don't know, what we don't know.
It's an issue of complexity and requires a complex way forward of moving from certai...
     
 
  How to Sustain Disruptive Innovation?
After gaining entry into some (new) market segment through disruptive innovation, how do you SUSTAIN your position and growth...
Does that require other cycles of disruptive innovation, or will regular incremental innovation do?...
     
 
  Distinguishing Three Types of Innovation
Christensen (2014) argues that investing in different types of innovation will influence markets and firms in different ways. Therefore it is important to make a distinction between the different types of innovations, and when assessing them to use a...
     
 
  Leadership Skills / Approaches for Successful Innovation
Innovation leadership requires other approaches than general leadership for the core business. Furr and Dyer (2014) outline some unique leadership skills/approaches required for successful innovation:

1. RATHER THAN DICTATING...
     
 
  WHAT is Being Innovated? The 4 Ps of Innovation
There are actually 4 things or objects that one can innovate:
  1. PRODUCT/SERVICE: Product innova...
     
 
  12 Disruptive Technologies
It is important that business and policy leaders understand which technologies might matter to them and prepare accordingly. But which technologies could drive truly massive economic transformations and disruptions in the coming years? McKinsey recen...
     
 
  How to Develop Disruptive Innovation Skills?
I believe disruptive innovation skills can be mostly taught.
Beyond the associative skills which is cognitive, the other behavioral skills required to be a true innovator are discovery skills - questioning, observing, networking an...
     
 

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Mejores Prácticas - Innovación Disruptiva Premium
  How to Find Innovative Ideas? From Analogous Markets...
When trying to find innovative ideas for your organization, several studies have revealed that it is highly valuable to access expertise from outside your area of expertise. This is - according to Frane, Poetz and Schreier (2013) - because the degree...
     
 
  Innovation Strategy: The Three Horizons of Growth (McKinsey)
One of ways of thinking about innovation strategy is to use the 3 Horizons of Growth developed by Steve Coley at McKinsey.
The framework provides a useful mold to formulate an organization’s product and service portfolio strategy. It's a...
     
 
  Strategic Options for Old-Technology Firms
What should be the strategic response of old-technology firms when a promising new technology shows up? Typically firms respond by either
1. Fighting the new technology, or
2. Trying to make a transition to the new technol...
     
 
  Tips for Innovation Strategy
As a part of corporate success factor development process, we have found a need to build up an "Innovation Strategy". Can anybody give good hints or examples of what to or not to take into consideration?...
     
 
  Disruptive versus Incremental Innovation
Typically, Incremental Innovation exploits existing forms or technologies... Improves upon something that already exists or reconfigures an existing form or technology to serve some other purpose... It is other wise called marginal or continuo...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Disruptive Innovation Premium
 

How Can Incumbents Respond to Disruptors?

In recent years, the challenges to incumbent majors across industries have come mainly from low-cost competitors and from dotcoms (e.g. British Airwa...
Usage (application): 5 Strategic Options in Reaction to Disruptors
 
 
 

How to Find Good Product Ideas? List of 10 Approaches

In his book “Product Leadership: Creating and Launching Superior New Products”, Robert Cooper suggests following ten ways to great new-product ...
Usage (application): Discovering New-Product Ideas, Creative Approaches
 
 
 

Innovation Pitfalls

Harvard Professor R. Moss Kanter describes 4 common innovation mistakes and corresponding remedies (HBR Nov 2006):
1. STRATEGY MISTAKES - Seeking...
Usage (application): Avoiding Innovation Traps
 
 
 

Challenging the Existing Strategic Logic

A tool by Kim and Mauborgne is the "Four Actions Framework". This Four Actions Fr...
Usage (application): Finding New Markets
 
 
 

The Simple-Cheap-Convenient Approach

Based on Christensen’s model of disruptive innovation, Norton and Pine argue that experience innovation can effectively disrupt traditional competitor...
Usage (application): Addressing the Unmet Needs of Customers
 
 
 

Distinguish Disruptive Technology Innovation From Disruptive Marketing Innovation!

It is necessary to distinguish between disruptive technology innovation and disruptive marketing innovation, since there is no perfect interaction an...
Usage (application): 2 Distinct Capabilities...
 
 
 

How to Detect Consumer Needs that are Unmet?

In their article New Business Models in Emerging Markets" (Harvard Business Review, January-February 2011), Matthew J. Eyring, Mark W. Johnson, and Ha...
Usage (application): Product Innovation, New Product Development, Innovation Strategy
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
  1. Because the Internet, wireless devices such as mobile phones in co...
    Usage (application): R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

Recent Innovation Trends | New Innovation Types

Roland Bel (2012) outlines and explains four types of innovations that have become more and more important since the last decade. These recent inno...
Usage (application): Open innovation, User Innovation, Value Innovation, Bottom-up Innovation
 
 
 

How to Think Differently in Innovation?

Strategy is always related with risk, due to market volatility. Also today´s volatility is increasing very fast. So innovate thinking is a must...
Usage (application): How to Be Innovative, Innovative Thinking
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Innovating by Reconsidering Value Delivery

When innovating their business model, companies need to reconsider their value proposition from all perspectives. One of the perspectives is how compa...
Usage (application): Fundamental Innovation
 
 
 

Creating Organizations to Produce Breakthrough Innovations

Since 50 years, the Pentagon’s Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has been very successful in producing an incredible amount of breakth...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Critical Factors, Creating an Organization to lead Radical Innovation
 
 
 

How to Design Experiments to Support Decision-making on Strategic Innovations

The probability of success of a major innovation is difficult to assess. Statistics and other datasets only provide information about past beha...
Usage (application): Strategic Innovation, Strategic Decision-making, Strategic Experimenting, Experiments, Strategic Testing, Innovation Tes
 
 
 

Classes of Innovation | Sources of Innovation

TWO CLASSES OF INNOVATION
Innovation can be triggered or enabled by two broad classes:
  1. KNOWLEDGE PUSH: Innovation triggered...
    Usage (application): Innovation, Creativity, Organizational Innovativeness, Lateral Thinking, Out of the Box Thinking, Blue Ocean Strategy
 
 
 

Why Large Firms are Having Difficulties to Deal with Disruptive Innovations

Christensen explains why many firms, especially large firms, have trouble with adapting and thus with surviving when dealing with external disruptive ...
Usage (application): Innovation Management
 
 
 

Big-Bang Disruption

BBD is a term coined by Accenture gurus Larry Drownes and Paul F. Numes.
Technological innovation lately started out from the low-end. Initially ...
Usage (application): Technological Innovation
 
 
 

What Makes a Company Innovative?

A futurethink 2006 Innovation Tracker Survey mentions:
- Ability to create a climate that continuously fosters innovation
- Creative think...
Usage (application): Innovation Best Practices, R&D Best Practices, Corporate Innovation
 
 
 

Three Critical Capabilities in Developing a Strategic Corporate Disruptive Innovation Competence

Skarzynski and Rufat-Latre (2011) discovered that the successes of disruptive innovators are driven by 3 critical capabilities, which are important le...
Usage (application): (Disruptive) Innovation Competence, Strategic Innovation Capability, Corporate Strategy, Innovation Leadership
 
 
 

Predecessor of Christensen

The theory of Disruptive Innovation was actually not created by Christensen. It was described by Thomas Hugues, MIT Press in 1984 in the paper "The Ev...
Usage (application): Technology-driven Change Theory
 
 
 

How BOP Countries Can Disrupt Western Markets

After the Second World War, Japan started to develop fast as a result of their disruptive innovation strategy. This disruptive innovation process init...
Usage (application): Disruptive Innovation, Bottom of the Pyramid, Country-level Strategy
 
 
 

Designing Complex Products or Systems Through Iterative Rapid-cycle Prototyping

Today, organizations are increasingly developing and designing new and complex products or systems. In other words, the complexity of the design proce...
Usage (application): Design Thinking, Disruptive Innovation, Blue Ocean Strategy, Introducing Complex Systems, Co-Creation
 
 
 

Misunderstandings on the Concept of Disruptive Innovations

In their paper “A Reflective Review of Disruptive Innovation Theory”, the authors mention three misunderstandings on the concept of disruptive innovat...
Usage (application): Technology Innovation
 
 
 

Why Some Technology Revolutions Take Off and Others Don't

Back in 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote “Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, in which he suggested that the entrenched interests in an old paradigm will res...
Usage (application): Adoption of New Technologies
 
 
 

Geographic Dimension to Explain Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries

In the past, it was generally thought that the Western countries were the main sources of innovation while developing countries were seen as recipient...
Usage (application): Disruptive Innovation in Emerging Countries
 
 

Recursos - Innovación Disruptiva Premium
 

Noticias

Radical Innovacion
     
 

Noticias

Radical Cambio
     
 

Vídeos

Radical Innovacion
     
 

Vídeos

Radical Cambio
     
 

Presentaciones

Radical Innovacion
     
 

Presentaciones

Radical Cambio
     
 

Más

Radical Innovacion
     
 

Más

Radical Cambio
     

Compare Innovación Disruptiva con:  Ciclo de Vida del Producto  |  Doce Principios de la Economía de la Red  |  Modelo de Difusión de Bass  |  Diez Escuelas de Pensamiento Estratégico  |  Estrategia Océano Azul  |  Posicionamiento  |  Teoría de la Difusión de Innovaciones  |  Mezcla de Mercadotecnia  |  Olvidar, Tomar Prestado y Aprender  |  Cuatro Trayectorias de Cambio de la Industria  |  Co-Creación  |  Definición Tridimensional del Negocio


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