Gestión del Cambio | Gerencia de Implementación | Iceberg del Cambio

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Descripción del Iceberg del Cambio de Wilfried Krüger.

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La Iceberg del Cambio de Wilfried Krüger es una fuerte visualización sobre cuál es la esencia del cambio organizacional: ocuparse de las barreras.


La parte superior del iceberg

Según Krüger muchos gerentes del cambio consideran solamente la parte superior del iceberg: Costo, calidad y tiempo (“El Tema de la Administración").


Debajo de la superficie del iceberg

Sin embargo, debajo de la superficie del agua hay dos dimensiones más de la gestión del Cambio y de su puesta en práctica:

  • Administración de opiniones y creencias, y
  • Administración del poder y de la política

Se presenta qué clase de barreras, y qué clase de Gerencia de Implementación es por lo tanto la necesaria, dependiendo de:

1. la clase de cambio

     - "Sólo" cosas duras, rasguñar la superficie (sistemas de información, procesos),

     - Cambios suaves, a niveles mucho más profundos (los valores, marcos mentales y las capacidades)

2. la estrategia de cambio aplicada

     - cambio revolucionario, dramático como en Reingeniería de Procesos de Negocio

     - cambio evolutivo, incremental como en Kaizen


Gente implicada en el cambio

  • Los opositores tienen una actitud generalmente negativa hacia el cambio Y un comportamiento negativo hacia este cambio personal particular. Necesitan ser controlados por la administración de opiniones y de creencias para cambiar sus mentes tanto como sea posible.
  • Los promotores por otra parte, estos tienen una actitud genéricamente positiva hacia el cambio Y son positivos sobre este cambio para ellos personalmente, en particular. Se aprovechan del cambio y por lo tanto, lo apoyarán.
  • Los opositores ocultos tienen una actitud genéricamente negativa hacia el cambio aunque parecen apoyar el cambio en un nivel superficial (“Oportunistas”). Aquí la gestión de opiniones y de creencias apoyadas por la información (Administración del tema) es necesaria para cambiar su actitud.
  • Los promotores potenciales tienen generalmente una actitud positiva hacia el cambio, no obstante, por ciertas razones, no les convence (todavía) este cambio en particular. La administración del Poder y de la política parece ser la apropiada en este caso.

lidiando con el cambio

Krüger dice que la Gerencia General tiene una tarea y un desafío permanentes de ocuparse del cambio. sólo puede lograr resultados constantes en un nivel superficial con la aceptación que está debajo de la superficie. La base de la Gestión del Cambio está en ambas dimensiones, la interpersonal y del comportamiento; y la dimensión normativa y cultural; esta base está sujeta  a la Gestión del Poder y de la política, y en la Gestión de las opiniones y de las creencias.

cambie el iceberg de la gestión

Artículo: Wilfried Krüger - Implementation: the Core Task of Change Management, CEMS Business Review, Vol. 1, 1996

Libro: Michael A. Beitler - Strategic Organizational change -

Libro: Linda Ackerman Anderson, Dean Anderson - The Change Leader's Roadmap -


Foro de Iceberg del Gestión del Cambio
  ¿Cómo utilizar la resistencia al cambio como fuente de energía?
El cambio debe llevarse a cabo con la mejor sutileza, empleando una dirección muy hábil que trate de iniciar las acciones que enrumbe hacia el estado deseado o planeado.
La resistencia al cambio es la energía que se necesita desarrollar para tr...
     
 
  Cambios Graduales: Participar y Generar los Cambios
Los cambios deben ser casi imperceptibles, por evolución y no por "revolución", no obstante la dirección general debe ser la primera en participar y generar los cambios o de lo contrario fracasarán....
     
 
  El Iceberg de la Gestion del Cambio
Muy practica y elocuente la grafica del iceberg. En especial los opositores escondidos adoptan esta posiciòn cando el cambio les quita algo de poder o implica mayor esfuerzo sin un incremento en sus ingresos. Generalmente son personas que llevan años...
     
 
  Disposición hacia la Salud Mental
¿Cómo conseguir que la Empresa estime la Salud Emocional de sus Colaboradores y empiece a apoyar programas de atención para ellos y sus familiares?...
     
 
  Achieving Change at the Individual Level
It is a known fact that in order to have an effective change implementation at the organisation level you need change at the individual level. Every individual aspiring to implement change spends his energy in the form of planning, debating, deciding...
     
 
  Why You should Embrace Change
Wildebeest that travel thousands of miles every year to get to water during the dry season will walk in a windy pattern a lot of the time. In fact, when they move around across the plains, they will continuously assess the environment they are in rig...
     
 
  Create Involvement and Communicate the Strategic Need to Change
Changes in general are difficult and, in most cases, we live them more like a threat than an opportunity. As we all know, these resistors are not random, but part of the deep survival mechanism that humans have developed over thousands of years.
...
     
 
  Avoiding Resistance to Change
There will always be change from time to time and management and staff apprehension will always be part of the issues to be dealt with.
Fear, guilt, threat, doubt and and all other motives fo...
     
 
  Checking Team Alignment: T4
I've recently piloted a strength-based approach to change using a free on-line tool combined with an appreciative approach. Initial output is very rich and teams are engaged.
Here’s the...
     
 
  Who Moved my Cheese?
The book 'WHO MOVED MY CHEESE' is a very good book for management student.
Who Moved My Cheese was published in 1998. A parable written by Spencer Johnson which describes change in one’s work and life. Who Moved My Cheese was included in the N...
     
 
  Overcoming Resistance? The Rapid Results Method by Schaffer
I have recently come across the interesting "Rapid Results" method of implementing change by Robert H. Schaffer ('Rapid Results!' (2005)).
A Rapid Results (RR) Project, in short, is an adrenaline-charged change, fast-moving, exciting, energizing...
     
 
  The Role of Conflicting Interests in Change Management
One reason change management in the private sector is complex is in the competing interests from owners, existing employees and patronage in the system....
     
 
  Dealing with Change is Not Always Problematic
I think there's a degree of over complexity here. In many instances humans do cope well with change, most usually when such change is under their control or when external influences are compatible with those things that genuinely motivate us -...
     
 
  Human Factors in Change Management
An important aspect of change management processes is human factors --- reactions to implementation which for both individuals and groups occur in phases. These can be laughing at the change, resisting it, accepting it, then taking it for gran...
     
 
  What are the Future Trends in Managing Organizational Change?
I am trying to findout what would be the future trends of managing organizational change, what they would be?...
     
 
  The Usefulness of Iceberg to Management?
What is the usefulness of the organisational iceberg model to the managers?...
     
 

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Mejores Prácticas - Iceberg del Gestión del Cambio Premium
  How to Make Employees LOVE Change?
Most of the discussions in this particular forum on the change iceberg are about RESISTANCE to change. My question is how to make people LOVE change... Why not create and exploit that situation? And what are the best options and approaches to ...
     
 
  What Leadership Style Reduces Resistance?
The importance of employees being committed to change cannot be underestimated nowadays, since more and more organizations are operating in a dynamic environment, both internally and externally.
How should leaders behave so as to maximize commit...
     
 
  Reasons and Motives to Resist Change
I'm trying to collect a list of all motives for resistance to change by employees.
Henk Kleijn and Fred Rorink in their book 'Change management' indicate that there are multiple psychological motives for showing resistance by employees or manage...
     
 
  What Punishment for Unwilling Employees?
My question is this: when an organization wants to bring change in the organization, we know that if employees are in favour of the change then we reward them and if they are not then they are punched.
So in what way we punish those employees...
     
 
  Bad Change Management Examples
Who can share a live example of a company implementing change management miserably? What went wrong and why? Thanks!...
     
 
  What are the Reasons for Change?
Why do we really need change in the first place? What are the sources / reasons for the need to change?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Change Management Iceberg Premium
 

I'll never use the term 'Resistance to Change' again

I am working as a change manager in a German IT company. Somebody advised me the other day to read an article about resistance to change by Jeffrey an...
Usage (application): Resistance to Change is a Defensive Attitude...
 
 
 

Addressing Concerns Against Change and their Remedies

According to Ken Blanchard in the article “Mastering the Art of Change” (Training Journal, January 2010), it is important for leaders to address the f...
Usage (application): Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management
 
 
 

Personal Networks of Successful Change Agents

Organizational change is often difficult to achieve because it disturbs the hierarchical structures and the way to accomplish things. For this reason ...
Usage (application): Leading Major and Minor Change Initiatives
 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through Change program, in whic...
Usage (application): Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
 
 
 

Understanding Why Resistance Occurs

The concept of bases of social power is very important for organizations in the context ...
Usage (application): Why Acknowledging the Power of Employees is Important
 
 
 

Key Success Factors when you're Designing your Change Management Program

In their article "Making Change Happen, and Making It Stick" (published in the online edition of strategy+business, December 20, 2010), Ashley Harshak...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Change Management, Organizational Change
 
 
 

What Change Agents Should I Use?

When choosing between internal or external change agents, organizations should consider following advantages and disadvantages of each o...
Usage (application): Change Management, Organizational Change, Turnaround Management
 
 
 

The Need to Communicate the REASONS for Change

1072 survey contributors commented on how improve their chances of thriving, by communicating in ways that build trust and engage people. For these co...
Usage (application): Change Management
 
 
 

Critical Leadership Skills

In order to tackle all six stages of concern mentioned by Ken Blanchard in the article “Mastering the Art of Change” (Training Journal, January 2010),...
Usage (application): Tackling the Six Stages of Concern
 
 
 

Role of Recruiting in Organization Culture So Hard? The ASA Model (Schneider)

Why is changing an organization culture so difficult? Because, once it is established, a culture has the tendency to strengthen itself, become more ho...
Usage (application): Organization Culture, Culture Change, Corporate Culture, Change Management, Recruitment
 
 
 

Assessing the Risks of Change and the Organization’s Capacity for Change

In their book "Transforming Public and Nonprofit Organization – Stewardship for Leading Change", James Edwin Kee and Kathryn E. Newcomer argue that th...
Usage (application): Leading Change
 
 
 

Six Crucial Mind Shifts for Strategy Execution / Implementation

Speculand (2009) suggests six mind shifts that people should consider when they're implementing new strategies in organizations. These are outlined an...
Usage (application): Change Management, Strategic Change, Resistance to CHange, Strategy Implementation
 
 
 

Strategic Change: Why, What, When, Who and How

If we need to change strategically, we need to think about why, what, when, who and how:
- Why do we want to change? - the constraints imp...
Usage (application): Preparing Strategic Change
 
 
 

The 7C Framework for Successful Personal and Professional Change

In the article 'Managing Yourself: How to Embrace Complex Change", Brimm (2015) provides a framework of seven C’s that can guide one successfully thro...
Usage (application): Personal Change, Professional Change, Personal Transition, Professional Transition, Embracing Change
 
 
 

The Role of the CEO in Strategic Change Initiation

In management literature the role of the CEO in formulating and implementing strategic change has often been emphasized.
An interesting view to s...
Usage (application): Communicating Strategic Change
 
 

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Compare Gestión del Cambio, con: Modelo del Cambio de Beckhard   |  Consideraciones para Cambiar la Cultura de Organizaciones  |  Olvidar, Tomar Prestado y Aprender  |  Las fases del Cambio  |  Indagación Apreciativa  |  Desviación Positiva  |  Marco de Evaluación DICE  |  Análisis del Campo de Fuerzas  |  Teoría del Grupo Central  |  Bases del Poder Social  |  MSP  |  PMMM  |  Planned Behavior  |  Reingeniería  |  Kaizen  |  Dimensiones del Cambio  |  Siete Hábitos  | Niveles de Cultura  |  Tipos de Cultura Corporativa  |  RACI


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