Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]

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组织决策权的变迁及组织结构的相应变化。 中心化与去中心化的解析。

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Centralization and Decentralization[中心化与去中心化]什么是中心化与去中心化? 释义

任何组织都必须做出一些战略性的运营决策。 那么,这些决策应该在组织的哪一层面上制定?又由谁来制定? 此外, 组织结构又要据此做出哪些调整变化? 中心化(Centralization去中心化(Decentralization就是两种截然不同的对决策权进行配置、对组织结构进行变革的方式。

 

中心化

  • 释义: 是一种将决策权朝向组织高层进行迁移和配置的过程。
  • 在中心化组织中,决策权上升至组织的较高层级,如企业总部或中心。
  • 知识、信息及决策高度集中于高层,决策结果自上而下在组织内部进行贯彻。
  • 高管的权力控制面相对较广,组织内部的层级亦相对较多。 比较: 法约尔

去中心化:

  • 释义: 是一种将决策权朝向组织低层进行迁移和配置的过程。
  • 在去中心化组织中,决策权下降至组织的较低层级,如部门或分支机构。
  • 知识、信息及决策自下而上在组织内部传播。
  • 高管的权力控制面相对较窄,组织内部的层级相对较少,因为组织的权力多存在于较低层面或底层上的自治部门。

去中心化的三种形式

  • 权力分散(Deconcentration): 去中心化的最弱形式。 决策权在同一组织内部向低层或底层进行重新分配。
  • 权力代表(Delegation: 去中心化的粗放形式。 通过代表机制,决策权被授予半自治的组织代表机构,尽管这些机构不是由组织完全控制,但最终向其负责。
  • 权力下放(Devolution: 作为去中心的第三种形式, 权力下放是指权力完全从权力中心移交给组织内的自治单元。

中心化的优势。 特征

  • 理念/重点: 自上而下的控制、领导力、愿景、战略

  • 决策: 强硬、独裁、理想主义、魅力领导

  • 组织变革: 上层决定,领导意见。
  • 执行: 果断,快速,整体协调。 对于重大事件和变化能够做出快速反应。
  • 步调一致。 组织内部不同部门之间意见相左、产生冲突的风险较小。

去中心化的优势。 特征

  • 理念/重点: 自下而上,政治、文化组织学习方面的活力。
  • 决策: 民主、参与、细节。
  • 组织变革: 源自互动的组织活力。
  • 执行: 渐进、自发。 对于细小事件与变化能够灵活适从。
  • 参与、责任。 固执己见、排斥异见行为的产生可能性较小。
中心化与去中心化论坛
  Centralization and Decentralization of Political Systems
Were the structures presented by centralized and decentralized political systems in Africa suitable for their administration? Why were they preferred in those areas they were applied? Were there any alternatives apart from the stated above?...
     
 
  Similarities Between Centralization and Decentralization?
I'm looking for similarities between centralization and decentralization. What do they have in common? I will be grateful for your tips and ideas....
     
 
  Decision-making in Germany
Would you say Germany typically has centralized or decentralized decision making?...
     
 
  Implications of Delegation
How can one evaluate the implications of delegation in private companies, NGOs, and public companies?...
     
 
  Divisions Versus Subsidiaries
I need some clarification of what is the difference between divisions and subsidiaries. Is there any significant distinction? In the decision making process?...
     
 
  Types of Decentralization. Categories
I am looking for a further classification of decentralization types? Do you have a list of forms of decentralization? Please share them and give an example. Thank you.....
     
 
  When is Centralization of Decision-making Better?
Please tell me the circumstances under which centralization is better than decentralization? Thanks...
     
 
  Decentralization Requires Involvement and Empowerment
Decentralization is preferred to centralization in many cases. But decentralized systems need to look at involving each individual at the decentralized unit.
To involve each individual means empowering the marginalized members of the community, ...
     
 
  The link between Centralization and Decentralization to Public Administration
What is the link between Centralization and Decentralization to Public Administration...
     
 
  Centralized & Decentralized Organisation
An idea would be to include comments and examples on the effects of managing shareholder wealth, stakeholders and the ability to add bottom line efficiency to an organization....
     
 
  Decentralization Better for Small Businesses?
Decentralization argument works for large businesses. For a small business, it is better to have centralization. Do you agree? Explain....
     
 
  Direct Communication in Decentralization
Is it possible that in decentralization the first line manager communicates directly with top management?...
     
 
  Decentralization to Local Government
What is the importance of decentralization to local government?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 中心化与去中心化 高级帐户
  Ricardo Semler: Democratization Instead of Decentralization
Decentralization has been around for very long, but with protracted results due to top-down hierarchical organization structures. Decentralization is only a fad and true decentralization is hardly practiced. Final decisions are still in the hands of ...
     
 
  Benefits of Decentralization. Advantages
1. Greater transparency and accountability.
2. Quick decision making, no long processes
3. Local problems get local solutions.
4. Greater participation by the average worker....
     
 
  Crisis: Centralization or Decentralization?
In a crisis situation, which one is better: centralized or decentralized? On one hand in a crisis condition urgent decisions regarding actions have to be made. On the other hand, the need of a democratic decision is also bigger. How can we manage thi...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Centralization and Decentralization 高级帐户
 

Key Considerations in Deciding Upon your Organizational Design

When setting up a business or organization, it is important to think about the roles, processes and relationships within your organization. Generally ...
Usage (application)Organization Set Up, Organizational Structure, Organizational Structure, Centralization, Span of Control, Departmentaliz
 
 
 

Centralization and Decentralization

The main advantage of a centralized organizational structure is that tight control from the top management fixes accountability. However, it le...
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