Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]
(坎贝尔)

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使命宣言(Mission Statement)的创作。 Andrew Campbell的Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]解析。 (‘92)

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坎贝尔Ashridge Mission Model[Ashridge使命模型]

什么是Ashridge使命模型? 释义

管理人员和员工们往往非常在意工作意义、认同感和归属感, 他们所需的工作回报常常超越薪金、安全以及机会, 他们真正的渴望是一种“使命感”。 事实上,使命感在组织内确有其存在的道理, 其常见功能如下(内部与外部):

  1. 鼓舞、激励管理人员和员工, 追求卓越表现。
  2. 引导组织和谐配置各项资源。
  3. 帮助平衡利益相关者之间带有竞争性和冲突性的利益纠纷。 也比较: Stakeholder Analysis[利益相关者分析]Stakeholder Mapping[利益相关者分析图]
  4. 提供方向感。
  5. 促进员工分享、欣赏组织的共同价值。
  6. 聚焦组织建设,用以凝聚人心(尤其是在危急时刻)。
  7. 帮助提高组织绩效。

使命宣言是一个组织使命的清晰阐述, 其常见定义如下: “一份广泛定义、经久不衰的组织声明,旨在阐明组织存在目的,用以区别同类其他组织,同时界定组织的产品(服务)范围。” (Pearce J.: 《使命宣言的战略运用》, 见《斯隆管理评论》,1982 23-3, 15-24)。 但是,根据Andrew Campbell的研究,有些使命宣言却常常是弊大于利,因为其阐述的理念、暗示的方向,往往并不存在。 员工们没有被激发出崇高理想,反被锤炼成了玩世不恭的犬儒。 为此,Andrew Campbell提出了Ashridge使命模型(Ashridge Mission Model),用以创作或分析一项切合实际的使命宣言。 Ashridge使命模型它整合了两个历史学派的观点来定义一项使命:

  • 战略学派。 使命从根本上被视作为战略制定过程的出发点, 它定义了企业的商业原理和目标市场。
  • 文化/哲学/伦理学派。 使命从根本上被视作为确保员工精诚协作的声明, 它是一种文化粘合剂,使组织运作如统一整体。

Ashridge使命模型包含以下四项要素,它们紧密联系,互为支持,产生共鸣,从而创造出一份强有力的使命宣言:

  • 目的。 共分三种:
  • 战略。 公司的商业原理, 战略与目的紧密相连,是商业的、理性的以及左脑的行为。 (比较: Whole Brain Model[全脑模型])
  • 价值。 蕴藏于公司文化之后的深层信仰、道德准则, 使命感产生于员工的个人价值与组织价值碰撞、交融过程中。 价值为组织规范、行为标准赋予了切实意义, 它是实现组织利益最大化的强有力的促进因素, 能够为组织行为提供理性说明,其作用有如战略。 但它属于情感的、道义的、伦理的以及右脑的行为 。 比较: Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]
  • 政策与行为标准。 组织成员的日常工作指南。 由此,就产生了Ashridge使命模型架构的钻石外形(参见右图)。

Ashridge使命模型的起源。 历史

Ashridge使命模型是由Ashridge战略管理研究中心(伦敦)基于对53家大型公司的研究,开发出的一项使命宣言创作分析模型。 公司负责人Andrew Campbell在他的职业生涯中,花费了大量的时间精力研究使命宣言, 以他为主导开发的四维使命宣言架构,后被称为Ashridge使命模型。


Ashridge使命模型的运用。 应用

  • 帮助组织认真考虑自己的使命。
  • 帮助组织员工交流讨论组织使命。
  • 帮助组织创作新的使命宣言,或是分析现有的使命宣言。
  • 使组织使命与组织愿景相区别, 愿景是一个组织的精神图景、渴望抵达的远景。

Ashridge使命模型的步骤。 流程

如下10个问题,既是创作使命宣言的步骤,也可以用来衡量一份使命宣言的质量:

  • 目的
    1. 宣言是否阐述了一个鼓舞人心的组织目的,避免了仅为某些利益相关者(股东、员工、客户、供应商)逐利的自私之嫌?
    2. 宣言是否阐明了组织对利益相关者的责任?
  • 战略
    1. 宣言是否界定了组织运作的商业领域,并解释了该领域的吸引力?
    2. 宣言是否描述了组织的战略Positioning[定位],进而找出其Competitive Advantage[竞争优势]
  • 价值
    1. 宣言是否紧紧围绕组织目的、信仰,阐述了一种能够让员工引以为豪的价值观念?
    2. 此价值是否与组织战略相共鸣,并能起到强化战略的作用?
  • 准则
    1. 宣言是否描述了重要的组织行为标准,并以此作为组织战略与价值的指路明灯?
    2. 行为标准是否易于衡量,员工是否能够以此判别自己的行为对错?
  • 特征
    1. 宣言是否准确描摹了组织的公众形象,抓住了组织的文化特质?
    2. 宣言是否易于诵读?

Ashridge使命模型的优势。 优点

  • 紧密结合战略与文化两个层面的促进因素,指导组织建设与发展。
  • 确保组织有一项清晰的使命,并确保员工有一股强烈的使命感。
  • 与麦肯锡的7-S Framework[7-S架构]一样,Ashridge使命模型强调战略与价值相协调。 此外,Ashridge使命模型还强调组织的共同价值与员工、管理人员的个人价值相协调。
  • 改进组织决策, 增强组织活力, 减少对监督的需求, 鼓励建设性的行为, 增强满意度和忠诚感。
  • 以组织生存目的为基石和出发点。

Ashridge使命模型的局限。 缺点

  • 不当的价值观和使命感对员工行为有很大的消极影响。
  • 共同价值观与使命感一经确定、贯彻与执行,就不易改变,甚至有可能成为日后组织变革的绊脚石。
  • 强烈的共同价值观或使命感有时容易导致排外偏狭。
  • 创作使命宣言的过程往往是一个耗费时间和资源的过程。
  • 使命文件有沦落为“纸老虎”的可能。

Ashridge使命模型的假设。 情况

  • 忠诚员工、团队比消极员工、团队工作效率更高,更能够胜任工作任务。
  • 较之抽象的战略概念,与个人价值观念相联系的使命宣言更容易被员工理解。
  • 使命必须得到清晰的阐述和有效的维护, 对组织使命的口头阐述、直观理解是不够的,因而需要创作使命宣言,并以文字形式确定下来。

参考书: Andrew Campbell and Laura L. Nash - A Sense of Mission - Defining Direction for the Large Corporation -


Ashridge使命模型论坛
  3 Categories of Corporate Purpose
In his article of 1991, Campbell also argues that if the overall idea of purpose exists, organizations can be categorized into three categories of purpose:
1. Some organizations say that they operate in the interest of shareholders wealth, these...
     
 
  Corporate Mission Deals with 2 Strategic Domains
Borrowing the ideas from the book, The Delta Project: Discovering New Sources of Profitability in a Networked Economy (Arnoldo C. Hax & Dean L. Wilde II, Palgrave 2001), a mission statement captures two inter-woven strategic domains:
1. <...
     
 
  Mission and Vision Matter. Proper Strategies and Tactics are Crucial
Mission in simplest terms means: the reason for existence / who you are.
Vision implies what you want to become in the future.
Strategy is the means or ways to an end or to the vision.
If you have a mission then yo...
     
 
  A Mission is a Calling or a Vow
We consider a mission as a calling or a vow.
Niat (Indonesian) is placed deep down in our paradigm, in our way to see the world. It is a solemn promise to do specific things for life as a whole. It should be embedded in the organization b...
     
 
  Mission in Social Network Era
A mission in this era will be one node that will change as impact of value relationships with other nodes.
The mission can no longer be used as a central control of all managerial dimensions.
The mission should focus on moving the to...
     
 
  Strategic Practice for Dynamically Changing Environments
Very interesting and important conversations. In these changing times, I write about and counsel clients and project leaders on the idea of what I have named "strategic practice."
This means cultivating a practice of analytical and lateral th...
     
 
  Ashridge Model not Realistic
I think that the assumptions taken are not based on realities. Thus, I believe that the model will find find it difficult to apply in practice.
Human beings find it easier to relate to tangibles rather than intangibles and before we could...
     
 
  Continuous Change of Mission
Organizations having articulated a mission and vision clearly, facilitate the "alignment of the employees" to the mission, vision and thereby the goals and purposes. This may be seen as "planned" and "deliberate".
It has to be kept in mind that ...
     
 
  A Vision with a Task is the Hope of the World
-- A task without vision is drudgery. A vision without task is only a dream. But a vision with a task is the hope of the world --
Slogan on a wall in Sussex in England.
Replace the word "world" by the "enterprise" and you'll find the correc...
     
 
  Mission not Aimed For
Recently, I finished a consult and I discovered that most firms have no idea why their mission is important. They only want to make a plan and put the mission where people can read it, but dont try to make the mission a reality in their busin...
     
 
  Is there one Definition to Mission and Strategy?
I really started my own brand strategy consulting firm, and it's been cemented in my mind that people's definitions of terms and buzz words can mean very different things. I try to focus on using practical language to explain what I mean.
Howeve...
     
 
  Dealing with Diversity...
What if we're in a democracy where people are stuck, scared, and do not want to except the responsibility to change? What if we're in an organization where people do not believe in change? What if we struggle with language, race and identity issues? ...
     
 

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最佳实践 - Ashridge使命模型 高级帐户
  The Absence of a Strategic Mission
In any organisation there is a time to reflect and/or report.
But how can one reflect and report if there is no clear defined objective/mission?
A lot of managers still miss that point. One cannot asses how far you are if you don't k...
     
 
  Strategic Mission and Vision of an Organization
The mission and vision of every organization are paramount to the growth and maturity stage of that organization. They are the guiding principles of its present and future activities.
Therefore they must be stated clearly and communicated ...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Ashridge Mission Model 高级帐户
 

Three Functions of a Mission (Statement)

Defining the mission statement is a major part of the strategic planning process. A mission has three functions or goals:
1. Market def...
Usage (application)Reasons for Creating a Mission (Statement)
 
 
 

Typical Content of Value Statements

Common Topics in organizations value statements, include:
- Commitment to such outcomes as customer satisfaction and customer service, q...
Usage (application)Strategy, Leadership
 
 
 

Write a Personal Mission Statement

Covey wrote this pearl of wisdom in his book Seven Habits: "The key to the ability to change is a change...
Usage (application)Establish focus on who you want to be in your life...
 
 
 

A Corporate Theory: Long-term Handhold and Guidance in Turbulent Times?

According to Professor Todd Zenger, companies should focus less on competitive advantage (this isn't what really interests stock markets). Instead cor...
Usage (application)Inside-out Corporate Strategy, Corporate Visioning
 
 
 

4 Types of Mission Statements

Missions that have been formulated by company's can be very different from each other, depending on their goals / functions. Klemm did a search on 59 ...
Usage (application)Which Type of Mission Statement is Right for Your Firm?
 
 
 

Organodynamics: the 3 Laws at the Basis of Performance in Organizations

Sherwood (2014) introduces the concept of organodynamics, a concept that explores the level of performance that can be achieved by organizations. In o...
Usage (application)Strategic Performance Management, Leadership, Corporate Mission, Corporate Culture
 
 
 

Careful: How Mission Statements Can also Demotivate Employees

One of the main positive effects of mission statements is that they're motivating and inspiring employees. A mission statement (MS) clarifies t...
Usage (application)Designing and Implementing Mission Statements
 
 
 

Impact on Performance

In a comparison of the performance of companies with high-content mission statements versus those with low-content mission statements, Pearce and ...
Usage (application)Strategy, Formulation Mission
 
 
 

Steps to Market Redefinition and Mission Redefinition

These are the steps that could be taken to formulate a new market definition and a mission reformulation:
1. Make a definition of the market the ...
Usage (application)How to Reformulate a Firm's Mission?
 
 

相关资料 - Ashridge使命模型 高级帐户
 

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比较: 7-S Framework[7-S架构]  |  Strategic Intent[战略意图] Moral Purpose[道德目的]  |  Seven Signs Of Ethical Collapse[伦理的崩溃七个标志]  |  Charismatic Leadership[魅力型领导]  |  Shareholder Value Perspective[股东价值观]  |  Stakeholder Value Perspective[利益相关者价值观]  |  Clarkson Principles[克拉克森原则]  |  Stakeholder Analysis[利益相关者分析]  |  Stakeholder Mapping[利益相关者分析图]  |  Spiral Dynamics[螺旋动力学]  |  Hierarchy of Needs[需求层次理论]  |  Corporate Reputation Quotient[企业声誉商数]  |  Cultural Dimensions[文化尺度]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Strategic Alignment[战略策应]  |  Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change[组织绩效与变革因果关系模型]


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