Break-even Point[收支平衡点]
Break-even Analysis[收支平衡分析]

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计算收支平衡点。 收支平衡分析解析。

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Break-even Analysis[收支平衡分析]

收支平衡点(Break-even Point)就是收益与损失相等的那一点, 它能够反映投资何时将产生积极回报。 收支平衡点也是销售收入与成本费用相等的那一点, 或者是总成本与总收入相等的那一点。 在收支平衡点处,既没有盈利,也没有损失。 在制定价格和决定边际利润之后,收支平衡点就成了盈利水平的底线,因此,在经营管理中,把握好收支平衡点非常重要。


今天达到的收支平衡点既不能弥补昨天发生的损失, 也不能为未来的损失做任何储备。 从投资回报的角度来看,它对此没有任何贡献。


收支平衡分析可以被广泛运用于产品、投资或是公司的整体运营。在期权领域,它也有用武之地。 就此而言,收支平衡点就是权证必须达到一定的市场价格,只有在这一价格水平上,期权买方在行权期间才不会有任何损失。 对于买入期权,它等于行使价格 + 已付溢价; 对于出售期权,它等于行使价格 - 已付溢价。


固定成本、变动成本和利润之间的关系

收支平衡分析是研究固定成本、变动成本和利润关系的一个非常有用的工具, 收支平衡点能够告知投资将于何时产生积极回报。 它可以用直观的图表或者简单的公式来表达。 通过收支平衡分析,可以计算出在一给定价格水平上,为了覆盖所有成本所必需达到的最低产量。 通过收支平衡分析,可以计算出在一给定产量水平上,为了覆盖所有成本所必需达到的最低价格。 在做收支平衡分析时,首先要定义成本项。

固定成本就是公司进入某一商业活动后所卷入的、不管生产水平出现任何变化仍然维持固定不变的成本。 固定成本包括设备折旧、利息费用、税金,以及一般营业费用,等等。 总固定成本是各项固定成本之和。

变动成本和产量直接相关, 它包括已售商品成本或生产费用,如人工、电费、原料、燃料,以及其他与生产或投资相关联的费用。 总变动成本是一定产量水平上的各变动成本之和。 平均变动成本或单位变动成本,就是用总变动成本除以产量。

注意不能把收支平衡点和Payback Period[投资回收期]混淆,后者是指收回投资成本所需的时间。


如果用价值管理术语来阐述,收支平衡点则可以被定义为Operating Profit[营业利润]的边际水平,在这一水平上,经营或投资实现了最低可接受的Rate of Return[收益率],即总资金成本。


收支平衡点的计算

公式:


BEP = TFC/(SUP - VCUP)


注释:

  • BEP    = 收支平衡点(Break-even Point
  • TFC     = 总固定成本(Total Fixed Costs)
  • VCUP = 单位变动成本(Variable Costs per Unit of Production)
  • SUP    = 单位产品价格(Selling Price Per Unit of Production)

收支平衡分析的优势

收支平衡分析的主要优势在于阐述了成本、产量及利润之间的关系。 它的扩展分析还可以显示出固定成本和变动成本关系变化、商品价格变化,以及收入变化如何影响利润水平和收支平衡。 与局部预算或资本预算工具结合使用,收支平衡分析更为有效。 当然,收支平衡分析的最主要功能还是在于揭示为了规避经营损失的最低产出水平。


收支平衡分析的局限

  • 每次分析只适用于一个产品。
  • 将所有固定成本或变动成本一一归类,比较困难 。
  • 即便成本和收入函数关系发生变化,经营者仍可能运用原有的收支平衡分析,从而造成经营风险,导致经济损失。

参考书: Marcell Schweitzer - Break-Even Analyses: Basic Model, Variants, Extensions -


收支平衡点分析论坛
  Break-even Point as Maximum Revenue
Can anyone tell me how to apply the BEP if the business does not want to make a profit but wants to end out on BEP at the end of each year? I have made a budget but am now struggeling with what needs to be done to get the budget to a break-even inste...
     
 
  Cost of Idle HQ Staff Included in Break-even Point Calculation?
Please let me know whether we should add the cost of the idle staff, not directly related to a project, when they are sitting in HQ, in the fixed cost to find out the BEP of that project....
     
 
  How to Use the Break-even Analysis in Negotiations with a Supplier?
Hi folks, I am working on an assignment and got stuck with this: suppose you know the break-even point of a supplier, how can this information be used in negotiation? There are supposed to be several ways......
     
 
  How does a Grocery Shop Break Even?
Could someone help me with the methodical approach towards cost analysis in a grocery shop. Please tell me how the Break Even Point (BEP) of such a business entity is calculated, given the hundreds of product types, marks and portfolios involved in g...
     
 
  How to Account for Interest in Break-even Point Calculation?
Hi, I am clueless as to how to calculate BEP when other operating expenses such as interest are involved. How is interest considered in the formula for BEP calculation?...
     
 
  Break-even Point Analysis when Material Prices Fluctuate
How realistic is the adoption of Break-even Point Analysis (BEPA), when the price level of materials fluctuate a lot?
Is there a way to adopt BEPA so it can accommodate frequent and considerable price changes of raw materials or components?...
     
 
  Could There Be 2 or even more Break Even Points?
The main article considers the simplest case, when the function TC (total cost) grows linearly (y=ax+b).
But we can image a different non-linear mathematical law describing the costs (y=ax^2+c or y=lnx +c).
Probably in this situation there ...
     
 
  Break-even Point Example
Suppose my sales turnover for a new product line (multiple products) is $82,000 and my purchase is $75,000. My minimum margin is 20 % before tax.
However, my fixed cost are about $18,000, variable cost is $3,000. We are growing currently at abou...
     
 
  BEP Calculation Possible with Multiple Products?
If you have multiple products with hardly any variable cost, would BEP calculation still be an option?
I have 40 lines and do not know how many products will sell. I only have a fixed expense being the space hired monthly and electricity usage. ...
     
 
  Breakeven Formula for Services
What is the formula for calculating the breakeven point in a services entity?...
     
 
  Break Even Point Calculation of a Bank
I would like to know that how can I calculate the break even point of my bank? What will be the formula for that & what will be the basis for taht calcualtion?
My objective is to determine the minimium deposit figure for break even point....
     
 
  Breakeven Point Calculation
Suppose my fixed cost for year 2011 is $1m. If my markup is 20%, what is my breakeven point in dollar. My business is roofing contractor....
     
 
  Break Even Analysis and Cost Benefit Analysis
How we can I draw a relation between break-even analysis and cost-benefit analysis?...
     
 
  Break Even Point formula for a service industry
What will be the basis and formula to anaylse the break even point for a service industry with manpower supply...
     
 
  Further Limitations of Break Even Analysis
Are there any other / more disadvantages or limitations of break even analysis?...
     
 
  BEP Useful for New / Start-up Businesses
BEP is also very useful for new / start-up businesses because it allows them to gauge whether the resources and capacity they have or can acquire will meet the minimum business activity necessary for them to break even....
     
 
  How to Calculate BEP Without Price Given?
In BEP, if the price is not given, how am I going to calculate BEP?...
     
 
  Measuring Improvement in Break Even Point
If one compares the break even point over 2 different time periods for the same entity, but on different cost structures (variable and fixed), and different sales, how do you measure improvement in the break even point?...
     
 
  Time for break even..
Generally, what is the minimum time to achieve break even for a company?...
     
 
  How to Deal with Owners Withdrawals in Break-even Analysis?
Can you tell me if owners withdrawals (drawings) are included in fixed costs in CVP and break-even analysis? Thanks!...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 收支平衡点分析 高级帐户
  Not enough revenues...?
What should I normally do if the revenues do not cover the fixed and variable costs? What should I do if the revenues do not even cover the fixed costs?...
     
 
  Time after Break-even Point?
What is the point/period called after the break-even point when the business starts generating a profit?...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Break-even Analysis 高级帐户
 

Step-Fixed Costs in Break-even Analysis

In analysing a break-even point, what is meant with 'step-fixed costs'?
Step-fixed cost is a cost that remains constant (fixed) up to a particula...
Usage (application)Taking into Account Step-Fixed Costs
 
 
 

What is the Shut Down Point? Definition

If all variable expenses are eliminated and employees are laid off, you will still have to pay the fixed costs, such as insurance on the building and ...
Usage (application)Compare SDP versus BEP
 
 
 

The Influence of the Costing Method on Calculating the Break Even Point

Marginal (variable) costing and absorption (full) costing are two different methods of costing.
In abs...
Usage (application)Why Variable or Absorption Costing Results in Other Break Even Points
 
 
 

3 Usages of Break-even Analysis. Applications

The break-even formula is both a model, and a planning tool, and an approach:
1. As a model it helps managers to have an idea about...
Usage (application)Teaching Break-even Analysis
 
 

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比较: CFROI[现金流投资回报]  |  Economic Value Added[经济增值]  |  Cost-Benefit Analysis[成本效益分析]  |  Free Cash Flow[自由现金流]  |  Net Present Value[净现值]


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