Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]

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通过小组创意活动,产生新点子。 头脑风暴法解析。

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Brainstorming流程头脑风暴法(Brainstorming)是半结构化创造性的小组活动,常见于专门的企业会议,围绕创新或改善,产生新点子,提出新办法。 为了产生尽可能多的点子,小组成员被鼓励就某一具体问题及其解决办法,畅所欲言,提供己见,即便这些主意有可能不会被完全采纳。 头脑风暴法的深层思想是:较之个体之和,群体参与能够达到更高的创造性协同水平。


头脑风暴法的规则。

成功头脑风暴研讨会的三个主要规则:

  1. 参与者被鼓励提出尽可能多的主意,不管这些主意如何的不可思议(头脑风暴会上没有坏主意)。
  2. 在研讨会过程中, 不对任何主意(点子)做积极的或消极的评断。
  3. 鼓励参与者交换相互想法,实现点子的碰撞与组合,将讨论引往意想不到的方向。

头脑风暴法的提示。

组织成功头脑风暴研讨会的要点:

  • 任命一位经验丰富的主持人 (可以考虑组织外部人士)。
  • 指定专人记录下研讨会上产生的所有主意。
  • 运用活动挂图来记录这些主意 (有助于最后阶段对所有主意进行研究和评估)。
  • 明确讨论主题(头脑风暴要围绕这一主题展开)。
  • 争取8-10名参与者, 如果人数过多,则分开讨论,会后将讨论记录进行汇总。
  • 指定专人记下全部会议内容。
  • 分2步对研讨会产生的主意进行评估: A : 定义评估标准; B : 按标准对每个主意进行逐一打分。
  • 研讨会结束前,讨论并确定优选出来的主意的实施方案。 如果它的贯彻执行过程比较复杂,再组织另一个头脑风暴研讨会来讨论它。
  • 阐明研讨会亟待解决的问题,明确讨论中必须遵守的各项原则。
  • 确保研讨会期间对他人主意不做评断, 任何批评都有可能导致小组成员不再畅所欲言, 这势必会抑制小组成员的创造性,有违头脑风暴研讨会自由思想、畅所欲言的本质。
  • 要鼓励在小组成员之间产生一种热情的、无批判的讨论氛围。
  • 要促使每一名小组成员都踊跃发言,包括鼓励那些沉默寡言的人积极贡献主意。
  • 要让所有参与者都能够感受到头脑风暴的乐趣。
  • 要鼓励小组成员提出尽可能多的主意, 既接受中规中矩的实用点子,也欢迎狂放不羁的奇思妙想。
  • 创造性的主意最受欢迎。
  • 避免对某一具体主意或思路展开冗长讨论。
  • 鼓励小组成员对他人提出的主意做进一步阐发,或基于他人主意给出自己独到的新点子。

头脑风暴法的效力。

头脑风暴法在世界范围内被频繁使用,长达70余年,但是对其效用仍有争议。 头脑风暴法能够在短时期内产生大量主意,就此而言,它显然是有效的。 以小组讨论的形式对现实存在的问题进行评估,确是一种有效的问题解决办法。 不过,持相左意见的人士则认为,聪明智慧的个体更容易产生原创的、高质量的主意。


参考书: Michael Michalko - Thinkertoys (A Handbook of Business Creativity) [中译本《思考的玩具:商业创新手册》,新华出版社,2003年] -

参考书: Jason Rich - Brain Storm: Tap into Your Creativity to Generate Awesome Ideas and Remarkable Results -


头脑风暴法论坛
  头脑风暴法记忆要点
1、程序: 1)确定议题;2)会前准备;3)确定人选;4)明确分工;5)规定纪律;6)掌握时间。 2、规则: 1)自由畅谈;2)延迟评判;3)禁止批评;4)追求数量。...
     
 
  Learning Canvas 3.0 for Brainstorming
The Learning Canvas (Alexandre Magno, "How Creative Workers Learn") might be useful as a tool for brainstorming sessions.
Since brainstorms meetings do not exclude any idea or judge any suggestions that come up from the team, normally many ...
     
 
  How to Measure the Effectiveness of Brainstorming Sessions?
Time and time again research shows that in general meetings are only 40% effective, with the rest of it being non-value adding activities. How can we measure the effectiveness of a brainstorming session just run? (Understanding such issues as product...
     
 
  Use Six Thinking Hats to Structure Brainstorming Sessions
I suggest using the Six Thinking Hats method to organize thinking in a brainstorming session:
1. Start by wearing a Blue hat as a facilitator and explain the purpose of the session and the meetin...
     
 
  Brainstorming: an Outlet for Hidden Ideas and Submerged Suggestions
Brainstorming is a platform for free suggestions and a democratic way of solving completed complex problems in any industry. This creates an opportunity for hidden ideas to come to fore.
The members feel elated and recognized for being in brain...
     
 
  Suggestion Boxes | Suggestion Schemes
I view brainstorming as a collection of 'suggestions' within a small group inside the four walls.
In our factory we had a "suggestion scheme". Suggestions were invited from the workmen on product development, means to enhance productivity, bette...
     
 
  Meeting Types: Proposing Something New or Building on Another Idea?
Theres a relationship between two initiating behaviors and meeting success, namely, proposing putting forward new ideas, and building als...
     
 
  The Paradox of Brainstorming
Sadly, in most organisations that I have consulted to or worked in the managers leading brainstorms have not actually conducted them properly. Too often they have descended into untimed, chart lists and discussions where creativity has been the first...
     
 
  Network Brainstorming (via Internet)
Network brainstorming (on the Internet) (electronic brainstorming) is as a process much more difficult than the traditional process conducted in one room:
- Members of the group don't recognize and understand each other easily.
...
     
 
  Brainstorming Outcome: the Next Step
Brainstorming is a creative strategy where individuals can squeeze their brains to think out of the box and obtain something novel with the rest of the team. After the brainstorming session is done, one way to proceed is to classify the ideas ...
     
 
  Use Brainstorming as a New Leader
I used brainstorming sessions to generate ideas and also to get to know how my team thinks. When you're a new leader of an organization, get the team together and brainstorm about what needs to be improved and how to do it.
It is one way ...
     
 
  Brainstorming - Dealing with Excess of Information
My latest brainstorming meetings for SWOT analysis generated more (much more) material than I expected, directed to several companies areas.
I have now a great deal of information to treat.
Is there a special method to solve this issue?
...
     
 
  Outsourcing Brainstorming
Here is a new tool for your team: get ideas in time for tomorrows meeting. Use a great new crowdsource service. Accesses thousands of brilliant minds. ideaconnection.com/contests/ ...
     
 
  Branstorming session - No more Purpose - Time to stop.
A brainstroming session serves no more purpose when and after the particpants have nothing to say anymore about the issues at hand. It is then time to stop....
     
 
  Combine Brainstorming with Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa)
I find that combining Brainstorming with a Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa) helps to generate ideas while the structure of the diagram helps to keep the ideas flowing. If the team comes to a...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 头脑风暴法 高级帐户
  Examples of Ground Rules. Tips for Facilitators
What are Ground Rules?
When you're going to participate in some form of group activity, it's a good idea to agree beforehand upon some rules all participants must follow. Such agreements are called: Ground Rules (GR).
GR are the stan...
     
 
  Start Brainstorming Process Individually, Then Move to Group Process
When people work as a group to brainstorm it limits novelty to start as a group to early. People censor what they believe a group will accept (Groupthink).
Research has found that brainstorming ought ...
     
 
  Store your Brainstorming Ideas - They May be of Use Later
During brainstorming sessions, varied thoughts come out of the team which can be co related to "ideas" captured earlier. An idea that was conceived a year back, may serve as a baseline for today 's topic.
So keep ideas, store them, so you can re...
     
 
  Do a Brainstorm Session to Make (or Prepare for) Major Decisions
It is adviseable to conduct a branstorm session before any big project for an effective decision making. In my long years of industrial experience I have found it is useful and wise to do brainstorming before taking any major decision.
The memb...
     
 
  Conditions for Brainstorming
A good brainstorming session is possible only if all the participants are:
1. Respecting each other and
2. Follow the etiquette of discussion, i.e. listening to the others without interrupting them when they are speaking....
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Brainstorming 高级帐户
 

What to do if your Brainstorm Process Got Stuck?

Also refered to as: 'Negative Brainstorming'. You reword the problem to how to create it, and then work towards the solution.
This variant can be...
Usage (application)Brainstorming session did not provided enough good ideas
 
 
 

Variations of Brainstorming

* Brainwriting / Nominal Group Technique:
This technique can be used to ensure that each participa...
Usage (application)Creative thinking, Decision-making, Brainwriting, Nominal Group Technique, Group Passing Technique, Team Idea Mapping
 
 
 

The Advantages of Group Decision-Making

The benefits of group decision-making include:
- Synergy: Group decisions tend to combine and improve on the knowledge of the grou...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

Evaluating Ideas

Princeton Creativity Research has developed the following 12 steps checklist to accurately evaluate ideas:
1) Have you considered all advantages o...
Usage (application)Checklist to Evaluate Ideas
 
 
 

The Disadvantages of Group Decision-Making

The drawbacks of group decision-making include:
- Longer time frame: Groups generally need more time to make decisions than individ...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

Determining the Relevance of Ideas

When you need to distinguish what is relevant from what is not, it can be useful sometimes to start understanding and listing what is and what ...
Usage (application)Brainstorming
 
 
 

Increasing the Quality of the Ideas in Brainstorming

In order to generate better ideas from your brainstorming sessions, Kevin P. Coyne and Shawn T. Coyne ("Seven Steps to Better Brainstorming", McKinsey...
Usage (application)Better Brainstorming
 
 
 

Advantages of Brainstorming

* Facilitates the generation of innovative ideas and improvements, as well as the finding of unusual solutions to problems.
* Can be used, when ...
Usage (application)Creative thinking, Decision-m.
 
 
 

Problems with Group Brainstorming. Resolutions

Empirical research has shown that group brainstorming is only about half as effective as individual brainstorming due to problems as distraction, comm...
Usage (application)Group Creative Thinking, Group Brainstorming, Group Decision-making
 
 
 

Brainstorming Sensitive Issues / Brainstorming Avoiding Groupthink

Cardstorming is a creativity tool, similar to Brainstorming, allowing people to share ideas. It can be used as an alternative to brainstorming ...
Usage (application)Brainstorming Variants, Brainstorming
 
 
 

Affinity Diagram Technique

Affinity diagrams offer a special way of structuring brainstorming sessions. This technique allows groups of employees to organize ideas, show ...
Usage (application)Structuring Brainstorming
 
 
 

Disadvantages of Brainstorming

* Very dependent on the contribution of the participants.
* Most of the resolutions are very often unusable (more than 90%).
* Risk of get...
Usage (application)Creative thinking, Decision-m.
 
 
 

The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

New research by Hewlett, Marshall and Sherbin proves that diversity (of personal and team traits) drives innovation and fuels market growth, although ...
Usage (application)Innovation, Increasing Organizational Innovativeness
 
 

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比较:  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Cause and Effect Diagram[因果图]  |  Mind Mapping[心智图法]  |  Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]  |  Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Game Theory[博奕论]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Dialectical Inquiry[辩证探询法]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Theory of Constraints[约束理论]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Catalytic Mechanisms[催化机制]  |  Johari Window[乔哈里资讯窗]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Pyramid Principle[金字塔原则]  |  Value Engineering[价值工程]


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