Metodo di Business Process Reengineering
(BPR)

Centro di Conoscenza

   

Riconsiderare e riprogettare radicalmente i processi organizzativi. Spiegazione di Business Process Reengineering [Riprogettazione dei Processi del Business] di Hammer e Champy.

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Business Process Reengineering Il metodo di Business Process Reengineering (BPR) è stato descritto da Hammer e Champy come “il riesame fondamentale e la riprogettazione radicale dei processi organizzativi, per realizzare un miglioramento drastico delle attuali performance di costo, servizio e velocità„.


Piuttosto che organizzare un'azienda nelle specialità funzionali (come produzione, contabilità, marketing, ecc.) e guardare le mansioni che ogni funzione svolge, Hammer e Champy suggeriscono che dovremmo guardare i processi completi. Dalla aquisizione dei materiali, alla produzione, al marketing e alla distribuzione. Si dovrebbe ricostruire l'azienda in una serie di processi.
 

La creazione di valore per il cliente è il fattore principale per il BPR e l'information technology svolge spesso un ruolo abilitante molto importante. Paragonare: Relationship Marketing

 

Michael Hammer e James Champy

I fautori principali del re-engineering furono Michael Hammer e James Champy. In una serie di libri tra cui Reengineering the Corporation, Reengineering Management e The Agenda, sostengono che viene sprecato troppo tempo, a passare mansioni da un reparto ad un altro. Essi sostengono che è molto più efficiente nominare un team che esegue tutte le mansioni del processo.


Un metodo a cinque fasi nella Riprogettazione del Processo del Business

Davenport (1992) suggerisce un metodo a cinque fasi nel modello di Business Process Reengineering:

  1. Sviluppare la business vision e gli obiettivi del processo: Il metodo del BPR è guidato da una business vision che implica obiettivi specifici di business, quali la riduzione di costo, riduzione di tempo, miglioramento della qualità dell'output.
  2. Identificare i processi di business da riprogettare: la maggior parte delle aziende usano il metodo “high-impact„ che si concentra sui processi più importanti o quelli che sono più in conflitto con la business vision. Un minor numero di aziende usa “il metodo esauriente„ che tenta di identificare tutti i processi all'interno di un'organizzazione ed li mette in ordine cronologico per urgenza di riprogettazione.
  3. Capire e misurare i processi esistenti: per evitare di ripetere i vecchi errori e fornire una linea di base per i miglioramenti futuri. Paragonare: Gestione Scentifica
  4. Identificare le leve di IT: la consapevolezza delle capacità di IT può e dovrebbe influenzare il BPR.
  5. Progettare e sviluppare un prototipo di un nuovo processo: il design reale non dovrebbe essere visto come la conclusione del processo di BPR. Piuttosto, dovrebbe essere visto come un prototipo, con rivisitazioni successive. La metafora del prototipo allinea il metodo con la pronta consegna dei risultati e la partecipazione e soddisfazione dei clienti.

Come sesta fase supplementare del metodo di BPR, a volte si trova: adattare la struttura organizzativa ed il modello di governance, verso il processo primario recentemente progettato.


Circostanze generiche che indicano se il BPR è consigliabile

Anche se è difficile esprimere un parere generico su questo, alcuni fattori che possono essere considerati sono:

  • La concorrenza supera chiaramente le performance aziendali? Paragonare: Turnaround Management
  • Ci sono molti conflitti nell'organizzazione?
  • C'è un'alta frequenza di riunioni?
  • C'è un uso eccessivo di comunicazione non strutturata? (appunti, email, ecc)
  • È possibile considerare un metodo più continuo verso graduali e incrementali miglioramenti ? (vedere: Kaizen).

Critiche del metodo di BPR

Il Reengineering ha guadagnato una cattiva reputazione perché tali progetti hanno provocato spesso licenziamenti voluminosi. Nonostante l'uso massiccio di pubblicità, che ha riguardato l'introduzione del Business Process Reengineering, parzialmente dovuto al fatto che gli autori del Reengineering the Corporation hanno comprato un enorme numero di copie per raggiungere la vetta della lista dei bestseller, il metodo non ha soddisfatto le aspettative. Le principali motivazioni sembrano essere le seguenti:

  • Il BPR presuppone che il fattore che limita le performance dell'organizzazione è l'inefficacia dei suoi processi. Ciò può non sempre essere vero. Inoltre il BPR non offre mezzi per convalidare questo presupposto.
  • Il BPR presuppone la necessità di iniziare il processo di miglioramento delle performance con “un'anima pulita„, cioè completamente ignorando lo status quo.
  • Il BPR non fornisce un modo efficace di concentrare gli sforzi di miglioramento sui vincoli dell'organizzazione. (Come fatto da Goldratt in Teoria dei Vincoli).
  • A volte, o forse abbastanza spesso, un cambiamento graduale ed incrementale (come Kaizen) potrebbe essere un metodo migliore.
  • Il BPR è culturalmente biasimato dal modo di pensare statunitense. (vedere: Dimensioni Culturali)

BPR paragonato a Kaizen

Quando il metodo del Kaizen è paragonato al BPR, è chiaro che la Filosofia del Kaizen è più orientata alle persone, più facile da implementare, ma al contempo richiede molta disciplina, soprattutto nel lungo termine e fornisce soltanto un piccolo passo verso il cambiamento. Il metodo del Business Process Reengineering d'altra parte è più duro, orientato alla tecnologia, e permette un cambiamento radicale ma richiede abilità manageriali considerevoli nelle tecniche di cambiamento.


Referenza Bibliografica: Hammer and Champy - Reengineering the Corporation -

Referenza Bibliografica: Davenport - Process Innovation -


Metodo di Business Process Reengineering Forum
  Provincial Business Process Reengineering
I am going to conduct research on BPR in a provincial council sector organization a project monitoring methodology context.
My research question is: "How can visionary leadership and project monitoring system process re-engineering enhance the s...
     
 
  BPR - Time Reduction versus Cost
Doing away the manual processes and bringing in technology and tools to make a process time efficient is one way of doing BPR.
However, technology and tools also come at a certain cost. That's why decision makers are often hesitant to invest in ...
     
 
  Deterministic Machines Concept in BPR
Hi all, could anyone give me a clarification regarding deterministic machines concept in BPR please? How can BPR be viewed in the view of deterministic machine view?...
     
 
  Developing a Standard Framework for BPR
After reviewing literature, I think that there exists no standard process of BPR. Every company redesigns its processes in its own way.
I believe different cultures, strategies and organizational structures are the main reasons of adapting so ma...
     
 
  Is BPR Helping ERP or is ERP Helping BPR?
I am a PhD student and my area is BPR. I just want to know your expert opinion (just general) regarding the relationship of BPR and ERP.
It is a fact that BPR uses technology for efficiency however, I have come across that ERP is doing the same....
     
 
  Cases and Causes of BPR Failure / BPR Disasters
Hello,
I'm doing research on BPR failure cases. Unfortunately, I can't find any cases to illustrate my research. Could you please tell me where I can find this kind of cases?
Thank you in advance....
     
 
  Alignment of BPR and IT Solution Approach
I am conducting research as part of a Masters degree on the combination of business process change methodologies i.e. radical and continuous improvement and IT solution approach such as Commerical Of the Shelf (COTS, package software), Business Proce...
     
 
  BPR Works only Top-Down
I am a BPR envangelist and in my experience BPR is only effective if it starts from the top, i.e. when senior managers accept the challenge to first revamp their mental models of management before they engage in the process. Otherwise all BPR efforts...
     
 
  Cases of Successful BPR Implementation / BPR Success Stories
Can you point out companies who were successful in BPR implementation? And what is the success rate of these projects?
I am currently doing my thesis on this topic. Any assistance would be appreciated....
     
 
  Maintaining the Quality of a BPR Programme
How can quality be maintained during a BPR inititiative?...
     
 
  Personal Business Process Reengineering?
Would anyone help me with one doubt here, can the concept of BPR be implemented in anyone’s personal life to have a radical change? Or is BPR specifically for business need only?...
     
 
  Business Process Reengineering = People
In BPR the people are the process and they are central to the success of any innovative change....
     
 
  BPR Through E-Governance Initiatives
In the public sector field of a government like India, implementing a 100% BPR would be difficult. Because the waste processes & positions identified out of such exercises would be of greater portion and the government itself would be unsure on how t...
     
 
  Business Process Reengineering in Agriculture
How to start BPR from clean sheet for large and very old agri industry? Any effective guide line? Thank You!...
     
 
  BPR is Like A Pipeline Through Pour Water
We know that drinking water comes through a tube for transporting clean water even when it's going through pour water. Without the pipe we do not get clean water. Similarly, to bring change in our country we need to implement BPR. Otherwise, for how ...
     
 
  BPR is not an End, but a Means
BPR is not an end, it is a means to an end....
     
 

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Migliori Pratiche - Metodo di Business Process Reengineering Premium
  The Role of HR in Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
We already know BPR is not about IT only. But I'd like to find out what can or should be the role of HRM (Human Resource Management) in effective BPR implementations?
Thanks for sharing your thoughts......
     
 
  Faster and more Flexible than BPR - Alternative Approaches?
Is there any other alternative to BPR? Something that is more flexible, faster and with less work than BPR....
     
 
  Is BPR Useful for Small Companies (SMEs)?
Can BPR be used in small and middle size companies as well?...
     
 
  Reward Management During Business Reengineering
More often than not, Kenyan organizations in need of adapting to changes in the competitive business environment fail to satisfy the needs of the diverse groups of employees within the company. Many employees are exiting, new ones joining in and othe...
     
 
  ERP and Business Process Reengineering
Business process reengineering involves radically changing the status quo to fulfil customer's expectation and keep them coming back. This involves change management thinking and implementation of organisational principles. ERP helps in integrating d...
     
 
  BPR is needed in Ethiopia
I believe BPR is an important change management tool. It is a radical tool. You can't help or solve all the bureacratic mess created on customers with any other tools - be it Kaizen , TQM, etc.
That is why the Government of Ethiopia a...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Business Process Reengineering Premium
 

Comparison Kaizen vs. Innovation

In 1992, A. Meckel made this useful comparison of Kaizen (K) versus Innovation (I):
1. EFFECT - K: long term and continuous, but not dramatic; I:...
Usage (application): Appreciate the Differences...
 
 
 

List of Reasons for Business Process Reengineering Failure

Re-engineering usually fails due to 15 main reasons in 4 main categories:
A. Failure due to the actual re-engineering process:
...
Usage (application): BPR Implementation, BPR Pitfalls
 
 
 

Success Factors of BPR

Abdolvand et al. (2008) mention five factors that are critical for successful Business Process Reengineering :
1. Egalitarian leadership: ...
Usage (application): BPR Best Practices, BPR Implementation
 
 
 

Comprehensive Step by Step BPR Approach

In their article “Business Process Reengineering: Building a Comprehensive Methodology”, Guha, Kettinger and Teng are offering the Process Reengine...
Usage (application): Generic Business Process Reengineering Methodology
 
 
 

BPR Guidelines by Hammer

MIT Professor Michael Hammer has been identified as the pioneer of the BPR concept.
In his earlier perspective, BPR consisted of a radical redesi...
Usage (application): BPR Implementation Best Practices
 
 
 

How to Re-engineer the Process Flow?

The process flow re-engineering phase in BPR cannot be standardized and summarized in a checklist since there are no fixed rules that can apply to all...
Usage (application): Guidelines and Ideas for Process Redesign
 
 
 

Leadership Strategies for Change

In response to the high rate of change failure, Ken Blanchard and his team have developed the Blanchard Leading Through Change program, in whic...
Usage (application): Initiate, implement, develop and sustain change
 
 
 

Using Appreciative Inquiry to Improve Business Processes

Organizations focusing on developing their processes may use the appreciative process to i...
Usage (application): Alternate Approach
 
 
 

Innovating Bottom-up or Top-down

Check out 2 recent articles by professor Deschamps on ...
Usage (application): Corporate Innovation Approaches
 
 
 

Business Processes by Goal

The main goals of Business Process Modeling can be classified into three different categories:
1. Descrip...
Usage (application): BPM Categories, BPM Types, BPM Classification
 
 
 

BPR Key Success Factors

In an article, Al-Mashari and Zairi summarize the following elements as the key success factors of a holistic BPR implementation process:
...
Usage (application): BPR, Best Practices
 
 
 

Morris & Brandon's BPR View

Among the most recent scholars who added authoritative builds on BPR, Daniel Morris and Joel Brandon argue reengineering methodologies are just too...
Usage (application): Organizational Change
 
 
 

Harrington's Business Process Redesign

H. James Harrington has been the first to utilize the term Business Process Redesign, to underline his orientation towards a lower impac...
Usage (application): Lower Impact and Less Risky BPR
 
 
 

Business Processes by the Way they Develop

Considering the way that processes may develop, we can differentiate them into the following 2 types of processes:
A.  
 
 

Comparison TQM and BPR | Comparing Total Quality Management versus Business Process Reengineering

Compare TQM and BPR:
Similarities in TQM and BPR:
- Both TQM and BPR are customer-oriented. They both aim on improving the cus...
Usage (application): Learn form the Differences...
 
 
 

Supply Chain Processes to Consider

Critical value chain activities where various process components are typically scattered across several functional departments should defeintely be Usage (application): Business Process Redesign, Supply Chain Management
 
 
 

Business Processes by Focus Area

Depending on their focus, we can distinguish 4 types of business processes:
- Integration intensive Usage (application): BPM Categories, BPM Types, BPM Classification
 
 
 

Types of Change. Classification

Organizational change varies along at least to dimensions (expected-unexpected and incremental-radical) and can be managed by classifying it in one of...
Usage (application): Change Management, Organizational Change, Expected/Unexpected Change, Incremental/Radical Change
 
 
 

Davenport's BPR Approach

Hammer's and Champy's original BPR concept, testified in their numerous publications, has been lately developed and mitigated by the work of Thomas H....
Usage (application): BPR Implementation
 
 
 

How to Lead an Innovation Team

In order to become a great innovation team leader, Ram Charan suggests in the article "P&G's Innovation Culture" (strategy+business, Autumn 2008, Issu...
Usage (application): Best Practices, Innovation Team Management
 
 
 

Process Analysis and Diagnosis Techniques and Tools

Process Analysis and Process Diagnosis can be considered as one single concept, although some differences have been underlined in recent management li...
Usage (application): BPR, Business Process Modeling
 
 
 

Remember to Focus your Improvement Efforts?

Very often organizations consider continuous improvement as committing on improvement efforts, and thus creating projects to implement them, in all ar...
Usage (application): Achieve More With Less, Kaizen, BPR, JIT, Lean, Value Chain
 
 
 

The Role of IT in Business Process Reengineering

Information technology (IT) plays an important role in Business Process Reengineering (BPR). It is considered to be a major enabler for new forms of w...
Usage (application): BPR, IT
 
 
 

The Process Vision

A business process is a set of interrelated activities targeted at a defined and measurable result that adds value to the end user (customer).
Th...
Usage (application): Process Approaches, Organizational Development, Organizational Change
 
 
 

Typical Improvements by Leveraging Information Technology

Business Process Reengineering is considered a key tool for improving the efficiency of an organization in accordance with its goals.
BPR, throug...
Usage (application): BPR, IT
 
 
 

The Human Factor in BPR and Continuous Improvement

In their book “Learning Organizations: Knowledge Management Theories, Models and Case Studies”, Italian F. Azzariti and M. Bortali argue that individu...
Usage (application): The Attitude of People is Key
 
 

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