Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的营销组合]
(7Ps)

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Booms和Bitner的 7Ps - Extended Marketing Mix[扩展的7P营销组合]解析。

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Booms和Bitner的扩展的7P营销组合理论,作为一项行之有效的市场战略工具,是从传统的4P营销组合衍生而来,即将原来的可控变量从4P扩展成为7P


7P营销组合的运用。

传统Marketing Mix[营销组合]模型以有形产品为导向的, 7Ps模型更加适用于服务业知识密集型产业(对于后者的适用性目前仍有争议)。


扩展的3P

Booms和Bitner将下面3个P增加到了原有的4P营销组合中。

  1. 人员(People: 所有的人都直接或间接地被卷入某种服务的消费过程中,这是7P营销组合很重要的一个观点。 知识工作者、白领雇员、管理人员以及部分消费者将额外的价值增加到了既有的社会总产品或服务的供给中,这部分价值往往非常显著。
  2. 过程(Process: 服务通过一定的程序、机制以及活动得以实现的过程(亦即消费者管理流程),是市场营销战略的一个关键要素。
  3. 物证(Physical Evidence包括服务供给得以顺利传送的服务环境, 有形商品承载和表达服务的能力,当前消费者的无形消费体验,以及向潜在顾客传递消费满足感的能力。

相对于前两个P(人员、过程),最后一个P(物证)是一个比较抽象的要素。


Booms和Bitner同时对传统的4P提出修改意见,他们认为,对于服务导向型企业而言,地点(Place)还应包括服务的可通达性,而销售促进(Promotion)则应该把一线服务人员的投入也包括进去。


参考书: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy [中译本《大行销时代》,台湾天下杂志出版社,2004] -

参考书: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management [中译本《策略行销管理》,台湾华泰书局,1998] -


扩展营销组合论坛
  Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing
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  Extra Marketing Mix P: Power
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  Use only P's that can be Controlled / Influenced!
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  Extra Marketing Mix P: Planning
An extra P that should be considered is Planning.
Planning is involved in each step of the 4P 's or 7P's......
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Publicity
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  Extra Marketing Mix P - Politics
This P's has grt power and influences the very basics of marketing..What say?...
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Performance
I think that performance is the only criteria for judgement pertaining to success or failure. The product performance can be encapsulated on the content of how much value satisfaction is being derived out of that. The greater the performance, the gre...
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Programming
I think at this age of globalization, where we use software for any specific objectives, programming can be an effective 10th P in the Marketing Mix....
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P: Patience
I think in service industry patience is utmost important, because whatever organisation is offering they are intangible things and if it failes to perform (which is often the case), buyer and seller both needs Patience....
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P: Positioning
We should add another P: Positioning......
     
 
  Alternate 7 Ps instead of Those of the Extended Marketing Mix
Proper Prior Planning and Preparation Prevents Poor Performance......
     
 
  What about Customers??
Sometimes I think marketers can get too hanged up with theories, that we forget the ' Customer Experience'. Though it doesn't start with a "P" per say but essentially they are the core of the Marketing Mix....
     
 
  Marketing Mix - when to choose what??
I think the whole process of marketing revolves around these 7 Ps, but what is more important is to analyze the internal and external environments, your strengths and weaknesses, and then prioritize how you wish to focus on each P. But needless to me...
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Principles
There is a basic misunderstanding by some of the commentators. The Ps are internal factors in control of the business and an error in one of them can cause failure of the whole mix. For example get the right product, right price, right promotion, rig...
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Product Innovation
To be successful in the market,every company should concentrate on Product Innovation that best suit the customers. Many companies are spending a huge sum in new innovation....
     
 

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最佳实践 - 扩展营销组合 高级帐户
  From 7 P's to 7 C's of Marketing
Anyone who has taken a marketing course learned about the 4Ps and later 7Ps of Marketing. They are Place, Price, Promotion, Product. Later People, Physical Evidence and Process were added.
However, there is no doubt that recently the marketplace...
     
 
  Is the Customer Always Right?
1. The customer is always right.
2. The customer comes second.
Which position do you agree with? Why?...
     
 
  Which Marketing Mix P is most Important? Prioritising the 7 P's...
Could someone please prioritise the 7 P's for me in order of importance?...
     
 
  When Should we Use the Extended Marketing Mix (7Ps) instead of the Traditional Marketing Mix (4Ps)?
Basically you could just go away with the 4Ps even when it comes to the services, however just having those 7Ps in mind is a good idea, but its not really something to focus on.
The Physical Evidence falls into the Place, since there are no real...
     
 
  Extra Marketing Mix P - Packaging
Another P should be added - Packaging. The rationale is that it is very important how the product is presented to the customer, and the packaging is often the first contact that a customer has with a product....
     
 
  What is Physical Evidence in Extended Marketing Mix?
I've read and re-read the meaning of Physical Evidence but it's still gobbledigook. "The ability and environment in which the service is delivered": Who can give some further explanation and examples? Thanks......
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Extended Marketing Mix 高级帐户
 

How to Determine the Right PRICING?

One of the 4 P's is Pricing. To help managers find the right price for a product/service, Kim and Mauborgne have developed a tool called the Price ...
Usage (application)Steps to Strategic Pricing
 
 
 

The Most Complete Marketing Mix

The 'Total Marketing Mix' includes 4Ps, 4Cs,4As and 4Os:
4Ps: Product, Price, Promotion and Place
4Cs: Customer needs, Cost to user, ...
Usage (application)Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix
 
 
 

3 Communication Phases in Providing Services

Three main communication phases can be distinguished in which a service provider communicates with his customers.
1: Pre-consumption phase...
Usage (application)Services Management
 
 
 

What Types of Marketing Organizations Exist?

Booz Allen identified 6 types of marketing organizations (May 29 2006 of Brandweek):
1. Marketing Masters: authority to coordinate with major bus...
Usage (application)Best Practices to Consider
 
 
 

Don't Forget Internal Marketing

Besides external marketing, dealing with the image, look and view how customers see or define your organization, internal marketing of y...
Usage (application)Involving your Employees, Internal Marketing Best Practices
 
 
 

Additional 8th P of the Extended Marketing Mix

Some practitioners and academics are suggesting a potential 8th P of marketing, although the opinions, which additional P should be included, differ s...
Usage (application)Marketing
 
 

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比较: Marketing Mix[营销组合] (4Ps)  |  Relationship Marketing[关系营销]  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Co-Creation[共同创造]  |  3C's  |  4S Web Marketing Mix[4S网络营销组合]


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