The 7-Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of Booms and Bitner is a Marketing Strategy
tool that expands the number of controllable variables from the four in the
original Marketing Mix Model to seven.
Usage of the Extended Marketing Mix
The traditional Marketing Mix model
was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7-Ps model is
more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive
3 extra P's
Booms and Bitner's have added the following 3 additional Ps to the
original Marketing Mix:
- People: All people that are directly or indirectly involved in
the consumption of a service are an important part of the Extended Marketing
Mix. Knowledge workers, employees, management and consumers often add significant
value to the total product or service offering.
- Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which
services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element
of the marketing strategy.
- Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the service
is delivered. Both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the
service, and the intangible experience of existing customers and the ability
of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.
The first two more Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one
(Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.
Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company
includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented
company includes the input of front-line service personnel.
Kumar - Marketing As Strategy -
Book: David A.
Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -
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Compare with the Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps):
Marketing Mix (4-Ps) |
| Ansoff |
BCG Matrix |
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