Extended Marketing Mix

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Explanation of Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps) of Booms and Bitner.


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The 7-Ps or Extended Marketing Mix of Booms and Bitner is a Marketing Strategy tool that expands the number of controllable variables from the four in the original Marketing Mix Model to seven.

Usage of the Extended Marketing Mix

The traditional Marketing Mix model was primarily directed and useful for tangible products. The 7-Ps model is more useful for services industries and arguably also for knowledge-intensive environments.

3 extra P's

Booms and Bitner's have added the following 3 additional Ps to the original Marketing Mix:

  1. People: All people that are directly or indirectly involved in the consumption of a service are an important part of the Extended Marketing Mix. Knowledge workers, employees, management and consumers often add significant value to the total product or service offering.
  2. Process: Procedure, mechanisms and flow of activities by which services are consumed (customer management processes) are an essential element of the marketing strategy.
  3. Physical Evidence: The ability and environment in which the service is delivered. Both tangible goods that help to communicate and perform the service, and the intangible experience of existing customers and the ability of the business to relay that customer satisfaction to potential customers.

The first two more Ps are explicit (People, Process) and the third one (Physical Evidence) is an implicit factor.

Booms and Bitner also suggest that Place in a service-oriented company includes the accessibility of the service, and that Promotion in a service-oriented company includes the input of front-line service personnel.

Book: Nirmalya Kumar - Marketing As Strategy -

Book: David A. Aaker - Strategic Marketing Management -

Extended Marketing Mix Forum (25 topics) Help
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  The Market Has Changed: 7-Ps to 7-Cs
Anyone who has taken marketing course have learned ‘4’Ps and later ‘7’Ps of Marketing are Place, Price, Promotion, Product and Later, People, Physical Evidence and Process. However, there is no doubt that the Marketplace has generally changed: Changi...

Extra Marketing Mix P: Power

Physical Power acquired by a company from one of its resources can not be overlooked as a strong P....

Use only P's that can be Controlled / Influenced!

Please, when deciding on any P in the marketing mix, it is key to remind marketers to focus on the ability to control the P.
Perception is not controllable, but may be influenced by package, product quality, the behavior of an organization, etc....

Extra Marketing Mix P: Planning

An extra P that should be considered is Planning.
Planning is involved in each step of the 4P 's or 7P's......

Is the Customer Always Right?

1. The customer is always right.
2. The customer comes second.
Which position do you agree with? Why?...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Publicity

Publicity and public relations will also be an extra P in the present day scenario as this will get more professionalised. Corporate image building etc has to be enhanced to attract customers....

7 P's or Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Maybe we should just be focusing on the things that give our organisations sustainable competitive advantage. This could be anything the organisation has, has access to or that is happening within the organisation. We also should be careful that we d...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Politics

This P's has grt power and influences the very basics of marketing..What say?...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Performance

I think that performance is the only criteria for judgement pertaining to success or failure. The product performance can be encapsulated on the content of how much value satisfaction is being derived out of that. The greater the performance, the gre...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Programming

I think at this age of globalization, where we use software for any specific objectives, programming can be an effective 10th P in the Marketing Mix....

Extra Marketing Mix P: Patience

I think in service industry patience is utmost important, because whatever organisation is offering they are intangible things and if it failes to perform (which is often the case), buyer and seller both needs Patience....

Extra Marketing Mix P: Positioning

We should add another P: Positioning......

Alternate 7 Ps instead of Those of the Extended Marketing Mix

Proper Prior Planning and Preparation Prevents Poor Performance......

Which Marketing Mix P is most Important? Prioritising the 7 P's...

Could someone please prioritise the 7 P's for me in order of importance?...

What about Customers??

Sometimes I think marketers can get too hanged up with theories, that we forget the ' Customer Experience'. Though it doesn't start with a "P" per say but essentially they are the core of the Marketing Mix....

Marketing Mix - when to choose what??

I think the whole process of marketing revolves around these 7 Ps, but what is more important is to analyze the internal and external environments, your strengths and weaknesses, and then prioritize how you wish to focus on each P. But needless to me...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Principles

There is a basic misunderstanding by some of the commentators. The Ps are internal factors in control of the business and an error in one of them can cause failure of the whole mix. For example get the right product, right price, right promotion, rig...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Product Innovation

To be successful in the market,every company should concentrate on Product Innovation that best suit the customers. Many companies are spending a huge sum in new innovation....

When Should we Use the Extended Marketing Mix (7Ps) instead of the Traditional Marketing Mix (4Ps)?

Basically you could just go away with the 4Ps even when it comes to the services, however just having those 7Ps in mind is a good idea, but its not really something to focus on.
The Physical Evidence falls into the Place, since there are no real...

Extra Marketing Mix P - Pace

How about Pace? I.e. The speed of introduction of new products.
Won't pace be a factor to be considered to get the First Mover Advantage?
Marketing success is a function of Pace in a big way....
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Expert Tips - Extended Marketing Mix Premium
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How to Determine the Right PRICING?

Steps to Strategic Pricing

The Most Complete Marketing Mix

Marketing, Strategy, Marketing Mix

3 Communication Phases in Providing Services

Services Management

What Types of Marketing Organizations Exist?

Best Practices to Consider

Don't Forget Internal Marketing

Involving your Employees, Internal Marketing Best Practices

Additional 8th P of the Extended Marketing Mix


Resources - Extended Marketing Mix Premium
Access presentations, news and videos on each method: Register

A Service-Oriented View on Marketing

Service-Dominant Logic, Perspectives on Marketing

Consumer Behavior in the Service Sector

Decision Making, Behavioral Economics

Product Packaging

Marketing, Sustainable Business, Environmental Sustainability, Packaging

Services Marketing

Marketing Services

Introduction to Services Marketing

Services Marketing, Service Sector Marketing, Hospitality Services

Introduction and Summary of the 7P's

Initial Understanding of the 7P's, Trainings, Workshops

Mindmap of Extended Marketing Mix



7ps Marketing


Extended Marketing Mix


7ps Marketing


Extended Marketing Mix


7ps Marketing


Extended Marketing Mix


7ps Marketing


Extended Marketing Mix

Compare with the Extended Marketing Mix (7-Ps): Marketing Mix (4-Ps)  |  Relationship Marketing  |  Ansoff  |  Porter  |  BCG Matrix  |  Positioning  |  Co-Creation  |  3C's  |  4S Web Marketing Mix

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