Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]
(de Bono)

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探索思考问题的不同角度和方法。 Edward de Bono的Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽]解析。

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Six Thinking Hats[六项思考帽] - De Bono Edward de Bono提出的六项思考帽是一个全面思考问题的模型,用以帮助人们面对复杂情境或挑战时,采取不同的思考角度和方法。 在制定战略和进行决策的场合,往往要求多角度考虑问题。


六项思考帽技术能够帮助我们个人改变传统因循的思考方式,有意地去探索一些全新的思考角度。 人们通过戴上一定特殊的思考帽,扮演一个特定的角色,就“好像”他们自己就是这个角色,就像角色所要求的一样在思考。 例如,为了讨论的需要,某个人可能扮演一个吹毛求疵的角色, 这个角色要求故意找茬挑刺,提出对其他意见的不同看法, 也即总是采取一种批评的态度,找出其他观点错误的地方。

每顶帽子颜色各异,并被赋以不同的思考模型。 例如黑帽子代表逻辑与批判,戴上黑帽子的人就要采取批评的思考态度。


六项思考帽及其思维模式

  • 白帽(资料与信息):白皮书, 中立, 集中于提供信息、客观事实,他人所需要的以及如何获取。

  • 红帽(直觉与感情):火热,温暖, 富有情感,全凭直觉, 提供不做辩解的观点。

  • 黑帽(逻辑与批判):苛于他人观点, 好做判断、 批评, 认为他人观点总是错的, 消极逻辑观。

  • 黄帽(积极与乐观):充满阳光, 乐观向上, 积极逻辑观, 总是寻找好的一面。

  • 绿帽(创新与冒险):植物的生命的颜色, 创造性思维, 积极假设并探索可能性, 酝酿新主意。

  • 蓝帽(系统与控制):天空的颜色, 给人以凉爽的感觉, 提供信息概要, 执行对流程、步骤以及对其他思考帽的控制功能, 领袖和组织者, 关于思考的思考。

De Bono的六项思考帽既考虑到情绪状态,也有心智结构的考量(如,考虑问题的角度)。 De Bono认为, “情感是我们思维能力的一项重要组成部分,而不是象有些人认为的,情感影响了我们的正常思维”(1985年, p27)。 没有哪一项思考模式(或思考帽)天生就比其他的要好。 一个完备的、平衡的团队才会真正意识到,在处理问题和面对挑战的时候,他们确实需要各个不同的视角和思维模式(思考帽)。


六项思考帽的主要优点

  1. 畅所欲言,没有风险。 有效抵制Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]
  2. 产生综合观点。
  3. 便于操作。
  4. 有明确的规则可以遵循。
  5. 关注于思考。
  6. 激发创造性思维。
  7. 改进沟通
  8. 改进决策。

六项思考帽的运用

在多数团队中,团队成员被迫接受团队既定的思维模式,不管是积极的,还是消极的,或者中立的,多少会让团队成员感到不舒服。 这就限制了个人乃至整个团队的配合度,导致不能够有效解决某个既定问题。 运用六项思考帽模型,团队成员不再局限于某个单一思维模式, 而且,思考帽代表的是角色分类,是一种思考要求,而不是代表扮演者本人。 思考帽的最终目的是指导和帮助思考,而不是在于区分思维模式或者思考者的类别上。 事实上,通过戴上思考帽,运用迥异的思维模式去思考问题,团队成员往往会有新的发现。 戴上思考帽,就意味着团队成员必须采取一种特定的思维模式,而这种模式当然没有必要是他们通常的思考方法。 每一个团队成员,都要对以上要点有充分认识, 在活动过程中,他的思考和发言都要能够与他所戴的思考帽保持一致。 戴上思考帽还有一个好处,就是能够将自我与表现相分离, 所以这也就有利于个人运用六项思考帽法来思考问题。


六项思考帽法的典型步骤。 流程

取决于亟待解决的具体问题,六项思考帽可以按照结构化的次序放置。 以下是一个典型的六项思考帽小组的工作流程:

步骤1: 陈述问题事实(白帽)
步骤2: 提出如何解决问题的建议(绿帽)
步骤3: 评估建议的优缺点——列举优点(黄帽)、列举缺点(黑帽)
步骤4: 对各项选择方案进行直觉判断(红帽)
步骤5: 总结陈述,得出方案,解散团队(蓝帽)
 


六项思考帽论坛
  How to Facilitate Mutual Understanding and Conflict Resolution
Conflict resolution means the reduction, elimination, or termination of opposing views. Interest-based negotiation and mutual bargaining are win-win conflict resolution methods.
Dont feel that a conflict must be necessarily resolved. Not all co...
     
 
  Techniques for Real Dialogue in Organisations
How does one get people to see the difference between advocacy and dialogue? Many conversations that take place in organisations are designed to have (or at least result in having) a winner i.e. "My argument or idea is better than yours", or ...
     
 
  Additional 7th Thinking Hat?
A potential seventh thinking hat could be an Orange Hat: thinking of moving forward in a such way as climbing a ladder of successes, SMART leadership, result-oriented....
     
 
  Taking Advantage of Conflicts in Group Decision Making
In past research it was often argued that group decision making (GDM)...
     
 
  Business Conflict Resolution
Under an earlier forum topic entitled "Resolving a Business Argument", there was a great discussion using Six Thinking Hats. This posting is a more advanced version and describes how Stephen C...
     
 
  Distorted Western Adversarial Thinking
A colleague recently shared a story that Edward De Bono told him at a lunch meeting. Apparently Edward was approached by a lawyer who asked: "How can I use Six Thinking Hats to argue and win my case in court?"
Edward's reply was: "You can't. Six T...
     
 
  Six Thinking Hats for Instructional Design
UPSIDE Learning has provided an interesting example of applying the six thinking hats for instructional design (link). The authors have chosen the following hat sequence: White, Black,...
     
 
  Six Thinking Hats Helps Speedo Create New Record-breaking Swimsuit
In 2009, Speedos research team began to brainstorm innovative ways to help swimmers go faster. They tried the Six Thinking Hats method of brainstorming, a green hat for creative ways to attack a problem, a black one to look at the feasibility of tho...
     
 
  Instilling Constructive Participation: 15-minute Soliloquy
Another complementary possibility (besides the Six Thinking Hats) to instill constructive participation is to allow each member of the group on separate days to lead the discussion in the form of a fifteen minute soliloquy about a related subj...
     
 
  Current Status of Six Thinking Hats? Hot News
On Friday, May 18, 2012, Edward De Bono was the keynote speaker at the FinanceMalta annual conference.
"Thinking skills expert Edward De Bono shared anecdotes and some jokes to demonstrate the effectiveness of parallel thinking and humour to pr...
     
 
  Six Hats Certification
I live in Sweden and work with process management. I have already worked with the "Six Thinking Hats" model which I believe is fantastic.
Now I would like to learn the method even deeper and also get a certification. What types of certification...
     
 
  Six Thinking Hats for Software Testing at Google
Our testing is only as good as our thinking--and all too often we are hampered by limiting ideas, poor communication, and pre-set roles and responsibilities. Based on the work of Edward de Bono, the Six Thinking Hats for software testers have helped ...
     
 
  Seventh Thinking Hat: Grey for Wisdom
Educator Michael Hewitt-Gleeson has suggested to add a 7th thinking hat: the Grey Hat for Wisdom.
Why the colour grey? Grey-haired seniors due to their time on earth gather a lot of wisdom, a combination of knowledge and experience. The brain is...
     
 
  Can Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Improve Thinking?
Suggestions have been made to use psychological instruments such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as an aid in resolving business arguments
     
 
  Conditions for 6 Thinking Hats. Assumptions
Having just completed the De Bono 6 hats course, I can honestly say it is a good tool if administered, not only in a mature organizational enviroment, but crucially, an environment where there is trust amongst colleague as well as trust between manag...
     
 
  Six Thinking Hats is Great for Exploring All Points of View
I think that the six thinking hats is a good method to make sense and authorize all the thinking of the peoples in meeting. Each answer is always a good answer and gives value for everyone.
Also it is a formidable way of progress for all, becaus...
     
 
  Six Hats Great for Teaching at University
I am using a modified version of the 6 thinking hats when teaching at the university. And it works very well. The students are not afraid of saying things because they are just playing a role......
     
 

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最佳实践 - 六项思考帽 高级帐户
  Challenging Plans or Ideas: The Ritual Dissent Approach
When facilitating strategic planning sessions, I often will use a Cognitive-Edge Inc. workshop method called: 'Ritual Dissent'.
It is designed to test and enhance proposals, ideas, plans through cha...
     
 
  Systematic, Deliberate Thinking is not Easy to Do
Your friend Joe calls you to say a recruiter from another company has unexpectedly called and presented him with a very attractive offer to head up a new department. He almost said yes right away, but he replied "Let me think this over and I'll get b...
     
 
  Resolving a Business Argument
We've all been in arguments, such as when one person wants to proceed with something, but the other wants to stop.
A resolution requires empathic listening, the ability to put yourself in the "other person's shoes" and view an issue from the oth...
     
 
  Situational Thinking Hats?
While each of us typically wears one of these same six hats, we do not realise it. I am wondering: can a manager at different stages wear each of them seperately to suit the situation?...
     
 
  6 Thinking Hats are Rubbish
De Bono's 'Lateral thinking' was great stuff! The 'Thinking Hats' (and 'Different Kinds of Shoes', if I remember right) were rubbish, I'm afraid. Can justify in detail if required....
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Six Thinking Hats 高级帐户
 

The Advantages of Group Decision-Making

The benefits of group decision-making include:
- Synergy: Group decisions tend to combine and improve on the knowledge of the grou...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

Checklist to Evaluate Ideas

Princeton Creativity Research has developed the following 12 steps checklist to accurately evaluate ideas:
1. Have you considered all advantages ...
Usage (application)Brainstorming, Creativity
 
 
 

The Disadvantages of Group Decision-Making

The drawbacks of group decision-making include:
- Longer time frame: Groups generally need more time to make decisions than individ...
Usage (application)Group Decision-Making
 
 
 

3 Causes of Disagreement in Team Decision-making Processes

According to Freeman and Haskins (2014), there are three main categories of potential root causes for disagreements within teams. When such a disagree...
Usage (application)Group Decision-making, Team Decision-making, Reasons for Disagreement, 3 Fs, Group Collaboration
 
 
 

Brainstorming Sensitive Issues / Brainstorming Avoiding Groupthink

Cardstorming is a creativity tool, similar to Brainstorming, allowing people to share ideas. It can be used as an alternative to brainstorming ...
Usage (application)Brainstorming Variants, Brainstorming
 
 
 

Concise Biography of Edward de Bono

Italian-American psychologist Edward de Bono is seen as a worldwide recognized authority in creative thinking domain. Born in Malta in 1993, wh...
Usage (application)STH Background
 
 
 

The Role of Diversity in Personal Traits on Innovation and Innovativeness

New research by Hewlett, Marshall and Sherbin proves that diversity (of personal and team traits) drives innovation and fuels market growth, although ...
Usage (application)Innovation, Increasing Organizational Innovativeness
 
 

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比较:  Groupthink[团体迷思]  |  Spiral of Silence[沉默的螺旋]  |  Team Management Profile[团队管理剖面]  |  Belbin Team Roles[贝尔宾团队角色]  |  Metaplan[元规划]  |  Core Group Theory[核心组理论]  |  Mind Mapping[心智图法]  |  Brainstorming[头脑风暴法]  |  Delphi Method[德尔菲法]  |  Catalytic Mechanisms[催化机制]  |  Whole Brain Model[全脑模型]  |  Scenario Planning[情境规划]  |  Game Theory[博奕论]  |  Root Cause Analysis[根本原因分析]  |  Dialectical Inquiry[辩证探询法]  |  Theory of Constraints[约束理论]  |  Force Field Analysis[力场分析法]  |  Emotional Intelligence[情感智能]  |  Analogical Strategic Reasoning[战略类推]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]


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