Situational Leadership[情境领导]
(Blanchard Hersey)

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不同情境之下有不同的领导方式。 Blanchard和Hersey的Situational Leadership[情境领导]理论模型解析。 (‘68)

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什么是情境领导? 释义

Kenneth Blanchard和Paul Hersey提出的情境领导(Situational Leadership)认为,领导者应该根据具体情境运用相应的领导方式。 此理论要求领导者对所处情境进行准确分析,进而选取适当的领导方式。 领导者应该根据员工在工作中表现出来的能力和信心,采取因人而异的领导方式。 即便对待同一名员工,不同时期、不同场合下的领导方法亦要有所不同。

Blanchard和Hersey制作了领导风格矩阵图(见右),用以帮助领导者对下属实施有针对性的、明确的领导。


Situational Leadership[情境领导]领导方式

  • S1 - 督促式(Directing:高任务、低关系。领导者为下属制定角色、安排任务,并给以具体指示和严格监督。 所有决定由领导者做出,沟通是单方面的。 这种领导方式适用于缺乏能力但工作热情高、有自信的员工, 在工作中,他们需要指导和监督。
  • S2 - 指导式(Coaching:高任务,高关系。仍然由领导者为下属制定角色、安排任务,但允许讨论,并听取下属的意见和建议。 最终决策仍由领导做出,但增加了双向沟通。 这种领导方式适用于有一定的工作能力,但却缺乏自信的员工, 因为他们仍然是相对缺少经验的,所以他们仍然需要指导和监督。 同时,因为员工的自尊需要,领导者还应该给以他们鼓励和表扬,并将他们融入决策过程。
  • S3 - 参与式(Supporting:低任务, 高关系。领导者将例行的决策权力如工作安排、流程部署交予下属。 领导者协调促进下属展开决策讨论,并协助其自行决策。 这种领导方式适用于有工作能力,但缺少自信的员工, 由于他们的个人能力,他们不需要过多的工作督促或指导,但是给与适当的支持、增强他们的信心则是必要的。
  • S4 - 授权式(Delegating:低任务,低关系。领导者仍然参与下属的讨论,但控制权由下属掌握。 由下属决定在何时、何种情况下领导者需要参与决策讨论。 这种领导方式适合于既有很强的能力又有工作意愿的员工, 他们乐于独挡一面执行任何工作任务,而不需要太多的督导或支持。

高效能领导者能够根据不同的情境,在这四种模式之间适时变幻,选择最佳的领导方式。因为,没有哪一种领导方式是永远正确的。 然而,可以具有倾向性的选择,联系到情境领导,管理人员应该心中有数,哪一种领导方式比较适合自己。


同样,也可以根据员工的能力和意愿,将其所处状态分为四个类型。


员工状态

  • D4 - 能力高,且信心十足。富有工作经验,具有独立完成工作任务的能力。 甚至有可能比领导者具有更高的技能。
  • D3 - 能力高,但信心不足。富有工作经验和能力,但缺少独立完成工作任务的信心。
  • D2 - 能力一般,且没有信心。具有一定的相关技能,但是,不能够在没有帮助的情况下,独立完成工作任务。 他们可能对于所从事的工作任务或者所处的工作情境还比较陌生。
  • D1 - 能力低下,但信心十足。缺乏工作所需的技能,但充满自信能够应对难关和挑战。

与领导风格一样,员工状态也是相对的,要结合具体情境进行分析和判断。 同一名员工可能在某项工作上,具有高超的技能,表现出十足的信心,但很可能在另外一项工作上,就完全相反了。


Blanchard和Hersey认为,领导者要能够根据员工所处的状态阶段(D1-D4),调整和运用自己的领导方式(S1-S4)。 领导者通过采取与员工状态相适应的领导方式,最终的结果是:工作任务顺利完成,良好的人际关系在组织内构建起来,尤为重要的是,员工的状态也会随之向D4阶段发展,真正实现共赢的局面。


情境领导的步骤。 流程

  1. 对每一名员工的工作任务进行识别;
  2. 确定员工针对具体工作所处的状态(D1-D4);
  3. 针对每一项工作任务,选择适合的领导(管理)方式(S1-S4);
  4. 与员工就每一个具体情境进行讨论;
  5. 制定联合计划;
  6. 后续工作、检验、修正。

情境领导的优势。 优点

  • 容易理解。
  • 便于操作。

情境领导的局限。 缺点

  • 该模型缺少领导与管理的区别。 这里所称的领导风格方式上更恰当的描述应该是管理方式。 也比较: Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]
  • 领导力也不仅仅局限于制定决策,还包括激励员工、影响员工的工作方向。
  • 领导者可能确实需要针对不同的员工,采取不同的激励方式。 但这种激励应该发生在员工自身已经做出变革决定之后。 因此,也不能将领导方式狭隘地理解为决策方式。
  • 对于工作责任、工作内容的关注过于琐碎。
  • 尽管领导者或者管理者在不同的情境下确实应该有不同的作为, 但是过分关注细节,容易忽略管理和领导的实质和根本。

情境领导的假定。 条件

  • 领导者应该调整自己的管理方式,以适应员工的“成熟度”,即员工完成工作任务所具有的能力和信心。
  • 恰好存在四种领导方式与四种员工状态错落相配。
  • 这四种领导方式建议领导者应该把领导重心放在具体的任务上(多管还是少管)以及和员工的关系上(亲还是疏)。
  • 领导力主要表现在制定决策上。

参考书: Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, Dewey E. Johnson - Management of Organizational Behavior: Leading Human Resources -


情境领导论坛
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  Situational Leadership Model works for me
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  Blanchard Leadership Theory is Correct
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  Model for Teaching Situational Leadership in a College Setting
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  Practical Situational Leadership Examples
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  Situational Leadership Board Game
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最佳实践 - 情境领导 高级帐户
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  Is Situational Leadership Innate in Good Leaders?
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Expert Tips (ENG) - Situational Leadership 高级帐户
 

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Leadership Practices Inventory by Kouzes and Posner

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The Ken Blancard company is now teaching Situational Leadership II (SLII), a method based on three key skills:
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比较:   Leadership Styles[领导风格]  |  Stages of Team Development[团队发展阶段]  |  Leadership Pipeline[领导补给线]  |  Leadership Continuum[领导连续体]  |  Hagberg Model of Personal Power[哈格伯格个人力量模型]  |  Managerial Grid[管理方格理论]  |  Path-Goal Theory[路径-目标理论]  |  Theory X Theory Y[X理论-Y理论]  |  Contingency Theory[权变理论]  |  Competing Values Framework[竞值架构]  |  Expectancy Theory[期望理论]  |  Result Oriented Management[业绩导向管理]  |  Bases of Social Power[社会权力基础]  |  Seven Surprises[七大惊奇]  |  Seven Habits[七个习惯]  |  Results-Based Leadership[业绩导向领导]  |  Level 5 Leadership[第五级领导]  |  Servant-Leadership[仆人式领导]


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