Managerial Grid[管理方格理论](布莱克&穆顿)

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依据对人的关心程度和对生产的关心程度,划分的五种不同领导类型。 布莱克和穆顿的管理方格理论解析。 (1964)

投稿人: F.M. van Eersel

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布莱克和穆顿。 Managerial Grid[管理方格理论] 什么管理方格理论? 释义

罗伯特·布莱克(Robert Blake)和简·穆顿(Jane Mouton)提出的管理方格模型是一种领导行为划分模型。 管理方格图是一张纵轴和横轴各9等分的方格图,横轴表示企业管理者对生产的关心程度, 纵轴表示企业管理者对人的关心程度。

需要注意的是,布莱克与穆顿亦提出第三条坐标轴: 动机,从消极(因恐惧所致)到积极(受期望驱动)。

根据企业管理者对人的关心程度和对生产的关心程度的不同,可以划分出五种不同的领导方式:

  1. 贫乏型领导(对生产与人都缺乏关心)
    • 释义: 一种委任与缺位管理方式, 一种基本上属于懒惰型的管理方式。
    • 特征: 管理者对生产与人都缺乏关心, 怕使自己卷入麻烦之中, 他最大的关心是如何使自己不担责任。
    • 结果: 由于缺乏管理,企业会陷入一种无政府状态,充斥着不满与不和谐。
  2. 乡村俱乐部型领导(对生产关心少/对人关心多)
    • 释义: 片面地关切员工需求。
    • 特征: 关系导向型领导对人关心多,对生产关心少。 他过度关心员工的安全感与满足感, 并希望以此来提高生产绩效。 他几乎不会运用惩罚性、强制性及合法律性的权力手段, 其原因是他担心这些权力将有损他与其他团队成员之间的关系。
    • 结果: 企业虽然氛围友好,却无效率。
  3. 生产或破坏型领导(对生产关心多/对人关心少)
    • 释义: 独裁型或服从型领导。
    • 特征: 独裁的任务导向型领导,高度关心生产,对员工却关心不足。 他认为员工需求无足轻重,并通常简单对待之。 他用金钱来激励员工。 合作的空间与可能很小。 他通过规则与惩罚性措施对员工施压,并以此实现企业目标。 作为任务导向型的管理者,他强于把握工作计划与进度。 他们不能够容忍不同意见。 这种领导方式以道格拉斯·麦格雷戈(Douglas McGregor)的X理论为依据。 它经常应用于企业处于现实的或者是感知到的困厄局面之时,如危机管理

    • 结果: 尽管短期内能够实现高产,从长远来看,生产却会因为大量的员工离职而下降。

  4. 中间路线型领导(对生产适度关心/对人适度关心)
    • 释义: 管理者设法在企业目标与员工需求之间实现平衡。
    • 特征: 管理者对生产与人都表现出适度的关心,希望能够实现可接受的绩效。 他相信这是大多数人所采取的领导的方式。
    • 结果: 在生产业绩与人的需求两者都无法充分满足中实现妥协与折中。
  5. 团队型领导(对生产与人都高度关心)
    1. 释义: 最佳的领导方式。 管理者对生产与人都表现出高度的关心。 动机很高。
    2. 特征: 这种领导方式以道格拉斯·麦格雷戈的Y理论为依据。 管理者鼓励员工的团队合作与责任感。 这种领导方式强调要让员工感到自己是企业大家庭的一员,使之理解企业的生产经营目的和生产需求。
    3. 结果: 基于信任与尊重的团队环境是员工获得高度的满足感和动机感,并最终带来较高的生产效率。

管理方格也被称之为: 领导力方格(Leadership Grid)。


管理方格理论的起源。 历史

在作为埃克森的咨询顾问时,罗伯特·布莱克和简·穆顿总结出,道格拉斯的X理论与Y理论过于极端,管理者的许多行为与动机不是“非此即彼”,而是处于二者之间。 布莱克和穆顿发现用三根坐标轴来表示的管理方格模型能够更准确地反映现实的管理行为。


管理方格理论的运用。 应用

对管理人员进行分析或训练,尤其是关于关系技能的训练,如: 处理批评、提出倡议、决策制定、解决冲突、发表主张(表达观点与意见)、问询(寻找信息)及适应(面对问题与挫折)。


管理方格理论的优势。 优点

  • 运用管理方格,使得管理类型不仅仅局限于XY两种对立的情况,而且不同的管理类型在一定程度上更方便衡量。 由于管理者的自欺与自夸倾向,对各管理类型进行衡量非常重要。 80%的管理者会为自己打到9.9的高分, 运用管理方格之后,这一比例减少到20%。
  • 运用管理方格,更便于对管理行为进行开放的讨论,更有助于管理行为的改进与提高。

管理方格理论的局限。 缺点

参考书: Blake, R. & Mouton, J. (1964) - The Managerial Grid: The Key to Leadership Excellence -


管理方格理论论坛
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  Applying Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid
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  Industry Specific Managerial Grid
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  Versatile Managers Can Adapt their Managerial Grid Style
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  Critics on Managerial Grid
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  The Grid and the Questionnaire with the Grid
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  Grid and Organitational Development (OD)
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  The Book and Its Content Beyond the Simple Graph
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  New Managerial Grid Releases
The article refers to Grid Release 1.0 (1964). Since then the New Leadership Grid Release 5.0 has integrated an extra dimension and 2 new styles, which address situationalism.
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最佳实践 - 管理方格理论 高级帐户

Expert Tips (ENG) - Managerial Grid 高级帐户
 

Five Types of Conflict Management (Blake and Mouton)

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Following six short behavioral tips can help you to enhance your leadership efficiency:
1. L - LISTENING: Actively listening to others will help ...
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How to Develop your Own Management Philosophy

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Recognizing Distressed Managers in Leadership Pipeline Transition

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How to Develop Better Relational Skills?

Although it is not necessary to be interested in or skilled at all four dimensions of relational work in order to succeed in your job, it is important...
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