BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]

知识中心

   

基于市场份额和市场增长的业务组合管理。 BCG Matrix[BCG矩阵]解析。 (‘70)

目录

  1. 摘要
  2. 论坛
  3. 最佳实践
  4. Expert Tips
  5. 相关资料
  6. 打印

BCG矩阵是最著名的业务组合管理工具之一, Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]论是其理论基础。 BCG矩阵由波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group,BCG)于20世纪70年代初期开发, 它根据公司每一个战略事业单位(SBUs)内部的产品组合,来确定优先权授予。 公司应该立足长远,平衡产品组合,既要有高增长但是需要大量现金投入的产品,也要有低增长但是能够产生大量现金的产品。 BCG矩阵是一个二维矩阵, 二维即是市场份额市场增长。 它的基本思想是, 市场份额高、或者市场增长快的产品对公司最为有利。


BCG矩阵BCG矩阵的四种组合

根据BCG矩阵,公司产品有四种不同的组合:

  • 吉星Stars,高增长,高市场份额)
    • 吉星产品要耗费大量现金。 吉星产品是市场的领导者, 所以,它也能够产生大量现金。
    • 吉星产品大都处于一种净现金流平衡的状态。 为了保持、扩大吉星产品的市场份额,任何努力和投入都是值得的,因为占领巨大市场份额后,企业得到的回报将是金牛。
  • 金牛Cash Cows,低增长,高市场份额)
    • 金牛产品产生大量利润和现金, 同时,由于低增长,现金投入要求也比较低。
    • 金牛往往是昨天的吉星,它是公司业务的基石。
  • 瘦狗Dogs,低增长,低市场份额)
    • 要尽量避免或者减少公司瘦狗的数量。
    • 要慎重实行昂贵的“营救计划”。
    • 瘦狗如若不能贡献现金,就必须被清除掉。
  • 问号Question Marks,高增长,低市场份额)
    • 在所有四类产品中,问号产品的现金表现最差,因为它一方面现金需求量大,另一方面又由于市场份额低,现金回报也低。
    • 如果问号市场份额长期不增长,那么它就会吸食大量现金。
    • 对待问号的策略是,或者加大现金投入,或者将其出售,或者不做任何投资听任其发展,回收尽可能的现金, 从而实现提高市场份额或贡献现金。

BCG矩阵与一体适用

BCG矩阵模型能够帮助我们认识“一体适用”的战略错误, 即用同一规模去适应不同经营的错误战略。例如,用年度9%的一般性增长目标,或是9.5%的资金回报率去要求整个公司。

在这种情况下:

  • 金牛SBU将轻而易举地完成目标, 对其管理层而言,完成这个目标是一件轻松工作, 其管理人员还会常常因为完成目标受到褒奖。 而且,他们还会被允许将大笔资金再投入到业已成熟的业务上去。
  • 瘦狗SBU则是在打一场“不可能”的战斗。更为糟糕的是,再投入资金, 去挽救无望的瘦狗业务。
  • 问号和吉星则因为它们的市场和现金表现,只能得到一般性投入, 照此它们永远也成不了金牛。 投入不足,对企业来说无疑也是一种资金浪费。 明智的做法是,要么选择一部分问号产品,加大投入使它们成长为金牛(或者吉星),要么减资。 同时,公司要从那些未被选取的问号产品上尝试获取任何可能的现金。

BCG矩阵的其他用途和优点

  • 该模型有助于公司发挥经验曲线(Experience Curve)优势,在生产和销售新产品的时候,以较低的价格进入市场,实现早期市场领导地位。 一旦新产品变成吉星,必将有高回报。
  • 该模型还有助于管理人员评估公司现有吉星、金牛、问号和瘦狗的组合平衡情况。
  • 该模型对那些关注产量和经验影响的大公司来说有很强的指导意义。
  • 该模型简洁明了,容易理解。
  • 该模型还可以作为公司未来决策和行动的基础。

BCG矩阵的局限

BCG矩阵的局限主要有以下几个方面:

  • 它忽略了SBU之间的协同效应。

  • 高市场份额并不是企业成功的唯一因素。

  • 高增长并不是市场吸引力的唯一指标。

  • 瘦狗有时候比金牛赚得更多。

  • 获取准确的市场份额和市场增长数据比较困难。

  • 对市场组成成分的定义不明。

  • 高市场份额并不总是带来高利润。

  • 仅仅考量了两个维度——市场份额和增长速度, 这有可能诱使企业专注于某一特殊产品,或者是剥离尚未成熟的产品。

  • 低市场份额的产品业务可能同样有利可图。

  • 忽视了那些市场份额增长快速的小公司。

参考书: Carl W. Stern, George Stalk - Perspectives on Strategy from The Boston Consulting Group -


BCG矩阵论坛
  BCG矩阵的延伸
BCG矩阵能不能把各个事业单元的协同作用包括进来?如果能够,如何操作?...
     
 
  What Strategies can be used for Dogs?
Related Learning
 
   
 
  What Strategies can be used for Question Marks?
Related Learning
 
   
 
  What Strategies can be used for Cash Cows?
Related Learning
 
   
 
  Differences Between BCG Matrix and Ansoff Matrix
The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) tool matrix is one of the tools used in product portfolio analysis. It's used to determine business growth opportunities and to decide on investment priorities. It's main axes are market growth versus market share.
     
 
  BCG Matrix: How to Research the Market Share and the Market Growth for each Business?
I am a management student at SWOSU in Oklahoma. I am having trouble on how to research companies to determine where they fit in the BCG Matrix.
What information do I need to look for and where to find a company's market share and the market gro...
     
 
  Distinction Between PLC and BCG Matrix?
What are the similarities and differences between the product life cycle and the BCG Matrix?...
     
 
  How Do I Place my Products / Services in the BCG?
Currently I'm trying to place the services of my company in the BCG matrix, and I have problems in theses aspects:
1. Should the products be placed by their relation of cost-benefit?
2. My core business moves around the handycapped p...
     
 
  Application of BCG Matrix in Forestry
Hello everyone, does anybody can help me with application of BCG matrix in forestry?
Currently I am working on a project and got a task to use BCG model to analize business portfolio of a forest company. From my point of view, the BCG model i...
     
 
  How to do BCG Plotting?
Hello everyone, I'm a little bit confused about how to plot products on to the BCG matrix? Should I:
[1] Look at the definitions of the animals and place products on to the graph depending upon what animal they most feel like
[2] Loo...
     
 
  Cash Cows Should Fund Stars in BCG Matrix
I think the cash cows should fund stars if they are cash hungry....
     
 
  BCG in Emerging or Fragmented Markets
The tool is really great, but how to use it in fragmented industries where there is a lack of information making almost impossible to make intelligent decisions.
For instance how would market growth rate or market share be calculated under such ...
     
 
  BCG Matrix: not in All Cases
The matrix does not consider the place of traditional/generic products that companies maintain in their product lines that may have had high market share and market growth in time past, but currently do not. Sometimes, companies just can keep ...
     
 
  Advantages and Disadvantages of Portfolio Planning Tools
What are the pros and cons of portfolio planning tools like the BCG Matrix or the GE/McKinsey matrix?...
     
 
  BCG Matrix and Continous Evaluation
Due to the highly dynamic environment in markets, the shelf life of any product or service is limited more by external factors than internal ones. Based on the above model, continuous evaluation of all products and services vs. the changing market sc...
     
 
  Not Useful for A Company Having Only One Product
A company entering the market with one product only, how they can use it for planning their strategies to promote its product or to compete with competitors having variety of products in the same industry? ...
     
 

BCG矩阵 小组


小组

BCG矩阵 培训|活动


搜索培训、会议及活动项目


最佳实践 - BCG矩阵 高级帐户
  How to Calculate the Relative Market Share in BCG Matrix?
In one of my company products' portfolio we are the market leader and have 92% of the market share (the second largest company has only 6%).
To calculate the relative market share based on the BCG matrix, we need the market share and the largest...
     
 
  What Strategies can be used for Stars?
Related Learning
 
   
 
  BCG Matrix: Can Dogs be More Lucrative than Cash Cows?
Can someone support this statement with an example or a case study?
"Sometimes dogs can earn even more cash as cash cows"....
     
 
  Why the Quadrants of BCG Matrix are Named as Star, Dog, Cow, Problem Child
The BCG matrix's underlying assumptions are these:
(i) High market growth rate, by virtue of attracting competition, entails high resource usage for the firm;
(ii) High relative market share, by virtue of  
   
 
  10% Limit in Market Growth in BCG Matrix
Generally in the BCG Matrix, when the market growth is more than 10%, it would be considered a star. Can anyone explain why they have chosen the (fairly high) limit of 10%?...
     
 
  BCG Matrix is useless!
Totally useless (as a contemporary business tool)....
     
 
  Example BCG Matrix: Coca Cola & Pepsi Cola
The matrix is misrepresenting in some cases. Example: Coca Cola and Pepsi. Coca Cola is market leader, as a result of which the relative market share of Pepsi is always smaller than 1.
When the relative market share is smaller than 1, you will b...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - BCG Matrix 高级帐户
 

Combine BCG Matrix (Market Share / Market Growth Rate) with a Margin / Market Growth Rate Matrix

It can be extremely useful to adapt the BCG Matrix to address a particular situation. Suppose you have plotted a portfolio of products in a firm in a ...
Usage (application)Combining the Market Situation with Our Profitability
 
 
 

Pitfalls of Applying Portfolio Matrices

- Care should be taken to generate sufficent information (knowledge) and avoid many forms of cognitiv...
Usage (application)Portfolio Management, Best Practices, Using BCG Matrix
 
 
 

BCG Matrix Revisited

In a recent research Steven E. Phelan, University of Nevada (Las Vegas) and Markus Venzin, Universit Bocconi (Milan), used a computational model to a...
Usage (application)Improve BGC Matrix
 
 
 

Reasons for the Decline in Use of the BCG Matrix

Despite is one of the best known and persistent tools in strategic management, widely used during the decade 1972-82, the BCG matrix has entered the <...
Usage (application)Limitations
 
 

相关资料 - BCG矩阵 高级帐户
 

新闻

投资组合
     
 

新闻

组合管理
     
 

视频

投资组合
     
 

视频

组合管理
     
 

简报

投资组合
     
 

简报

组合管理
     
 

更多

投资组合
     
 

更多

组合管理
     

比较: McKinsey Matrix[麦肯锡矩阵]  |  ADL Matrix[ADL矩阵]  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  Stage-gate[阶段-关卡流程]  |  Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义]  |  Relative Value of Growth[增长相对价值]  |  Rule of Three[三强鼎立法则]  |  Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Bass Diffusion Model[巴斯扩散模型]  |  STRATPORT[STRATPORT模型]  |  Profit Pools[利润池]  |  Product Life Cycle[产品生命周期]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Trajectories of Industry Change[产业变革轨迹]  |  Positioning[定位]  |  Strategic Types[战略类型]


返回到分类主页: 决策与评估  |  金融与投资  |  营销  |  战略与策略


更多管理方法、模型和理论

Special Interest Group Leader

你在这里


关于12manage | 广告服务 | 链接我们 | 隐私 | 服务条款
版权所有 2016 12manage经理人进阶捷径。V14.1 - 最后更新:30-9-2016。各管理方法名称(tm)为其原创者所拥有。