Resource Based View of the Firm[RBV,企业资源观](Jay Barney)

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运用超常资源获取可持续的超常回报。 Jay Barney的Resource Based View of the Firm[企业资源观]解析。 (‘91)

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传统经济理论认为,在常规情况下,如果市场是完善的话,超额的经济租值将会因为新的竞争者的不断加入、竞争加剧,而变得不可能。 企业资源观则认为,如果企业拥有超常资源,并且通过一定形式的隔离机制防止资源稀释,那么企业就有可能赚取可持续的超常回报。


企业资源观的早期实践者

美国经济学家Edith Penrose是最早提倡企业资源观的学者之一,早在1959年她就提出: “企业不仅仅是一个行政管理单位; 企业更重要的存在形式是生产资源的集合。行政单位的角色和作用是,通过其行政决策来决定这些资源在不同使用者、不同时间的配置。 当我们从这个角度来审视私人公司和评断其规模时,最好的标准是他们所操控的生产资源。” Birger Wernerfelt在1984年表达了同样的观点。


VRIN[VRIN观点] Barney Resource Based View[企业资源观]Jay Barney的企业资源观

多数学者公认Jay Barney是现代企业资源观(RBV)之父。 他的理论(1991)认为,在公司之间可能存在着一种异质或差异,正是这些差异使得一部分公司保持着竞争优势。 因此,RBV理论强调战略选择,认为公司管理的战略任务就是找出、发展和配置这一部分与众不同的关键资源,以谋求最大化的经营回报。

Barney 在1991年发表的《企业资源与可持续竞争优势》 (Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage)一文中明确指出,超常的租值在一定程度上是可以通过“VRIN”资源来获得。这里,VRIN的含义是:

  • Valuable,即有价值的资源,它是公司构想和执行企业战略、提高效率和效能的基础。
  • Rare,即稀缺的资源,资源即便再有价值,一旦为大部分公司所拥有,它也不能带来竞争优势或者可持续的竞争优势。
  • Imperfectly Imitable,即无法仿制的资源,一般需同时具备以下三点特征: 历史条件独特、起因模糊,以及具有社会负责性。
  • Non-Substitutable,即难以替代的资源,不能够存在一种即可复制又不稀缺的替代品。

其他学者的企业资源观

同样都是持企业资源观的学者,但是在对资源形式的认识上却不尽相同,如专利、产权、垄断技术、关系,等等。 多数学者声称,只有那些无形资源才能造就企业与众不同的绩效,所以也只有无形资源才是企业竞争优势的源泉。 Galbreath和Galvin最近研究发现,尽管RBV在理论上确实支持无形资源与企业绩效之间的联系,但是就实践经验来看,这种关联并非总是正确。 对此,有一种解释认为,资源之间可能存在着某种相互关联性,一种资源优势的产生可能要依赖于另一种资源的存在,所以没有哪一种资源——无形资源或是其他资源——能够单独成为所谓的企业绩效源泉。 (美国管理学会最佳论文集,2004 BPS L6)


VRIN资源不是那么容易就能被找到的, 这一点现在越来越清楚,尤其是当我们审视那些被冠以“节约型”的战略工作的时候(Porter,1996), 例如Business Process Reengineering[业务流程重组]、企业系统工程、Benchmarking[标杆分析]、组织精简,都是为了提高企业效率, 但是,对于行业内的所有竞争者来说,所有这些技术都是开放的,谁都能拿来使用。 它们最多只能构筑其一道临时的可以看得见的栅栏,但是产生不了长期的竞争优势。


企业还现实地面临着一种困境:可得到的资源往往不是可持续的。 有一点很清楚,能够带来竞争优势的无价资源必须难以复制,也就是说不能为竞争对手所轻易仿造和占有。 相反,如果能够被复制,那些“野心勃勃”的竞争对手必然会想方设法得到它。 好了,因为无法复制,企业似乎可以高枕无忧了。其实不然,占据不可复制资源的企业正面临着被竞争淘汰的危险: 他们的优势最终成了他们的绊脚石, 因为这些资源往往是非可持续的。


企业资源观的最新发展

新近的动态能力观(Dynamic Capability Perspective)已经拓展了企业资源观,将其带进了企业能力发展的新境界。 基于路径依赖型学习(Path-Dependent Learning)不断发展起来的能力,将确保企业在竞争者中永远保持领头羊的地位,并持续获取超额回报(Dierickx & Cool, 1991; Teece,1997)。 然而,这决不是说,大多数企业都有能力通过学习曲线效应阻止竞争对手赶超自己。 而是说,企业要确保竞争优势,就必须选择最佳能力发展轨迹(Optimal Capability Development Trajectory):1)这一轨迹要使得企业永远保持先发制人的位置;2)不存在同样高效的替代性轨线。 然而,各种限制性的理性条件却往往会限制企业达到第一个目标,而企业间的等效条件又会阻挠第二个目标的实现。 与此同时,杜绝模仿对企业来说尽管是必须要求,但企业应该认真考虑是否能够利用现有资源、资产或能力来做到这一点。 如此,不管企业资源观的理论和战略已经发展得如何先进,现实中的实践者们却已被置于一个尴尬的境地: 如何才能拥有梦寐以求的可持续竞争优势,这些优势尽管他们不曾拥有,但在理论上却是可以获得的。


Danny Miller最近调查了很多公司,他发现有一部分公司没有完全将公司战略建立在资源或能力之上,相反却是建立于“不对称性”(Asymetry)之上。 所谓不对称性,这里是指其他公司没有的,而且也不能以低成本去复制的一些典型性技能、流程、或者资产。 尽管它们与任何价值创造无甚关系,但它们同样稀少、难以复制且不可替代。 通过发现和重构这些不对称性,将它们嵌入企业的组织设计、战略规划之中,通过适当的市场机会,让它们发挥杠杆作用,最终成为企业的可持续能力。


企业资源观论坛
  Empirical Research of RBV
Does anyone can offer some experimental information of RBV?...
     
 
  Relationship Between Isolating Mechanisms / Barriers of Imitation and Company Size
Does anyone know an article that deals with the relationship between isolating mechanisms/barriers of imitation and company size? Despite a thorough literature review I did not find any research. With isolating mechanisms I specifically mean "unique ...
     
 
  Can 'Product Design Capability' be a Resource for an Organization?
I am trying to fit Product (or Service) Design from the perspective of Resource-based theory, with a special emphasis on VRIN (or VRIO).
In this approach, product/service design is then being viewed as a capability which has characteristics of V...
     
 
  RBV in Day to Day Planning
RBV is used in during our daily operation although we give different names. Just an example: grade mix during sales and operation planning. - optimum use of resources to meet market demand that will give us maximum revenue.
In strategic planning...
     
 
  Resource Based View Indentifies Core Competences
The RBV can be viewed as an internal strategic analysis tool of an organisation used to identify its core competences....
     
 
  RBV and Comparative Advantage
RBV is also about comparative advantage and strategy.
E. Spulberg at US Kellog University said: "The best strategies are those where firms meet the geography..."...
     
 
  Extended RBV Approach
The problem of resource based theory lays in restricted definition of the resources as ontological objects. It seems to be rational to use certain properties of the resource set as a representation (isomorphic like type) for explaining interactions o...
     
 
  Conditions RBV are Seemingly Non-Complementary
The two limiting conditions for RBV to be earning sustainable supra-normal returns are seemingly non-complementary. Superior resources (Valuable) definitely is very necessary. But, to be protective of these resources (Rare, Imperfectly Imitable an...
     
 
  Resource Based View of the Firm and SWOT
Resource-based view of the firm is a bit like a SWOT analysis. You analyze all the available resources of the business to further achieve its business goals. After that, evaluate and assess where you can impro...
     
 
  Example RBV - Engineering Firm
I am writing a thesis on RBV. One case study is a consulting engineering company. Which are the main features and capabilities of such a company from A RBV perspective?...
     
 
  RBV in Micro Business?
How is the RBV concept applied in micro business?...
     
 
  Strategic Resource Planning
Are there models exercises / solutions available on strategic resource planning?
Any experienced managers in this field... Ready to guide a MNC?...
     
 
  Resource Based View Industries?
What industries can be said to be heavily based on the resource based view? Why?...
     
 
  Barney Changed VRIN into VRIO
Barney developed the VRIN framework (1991) to VRIO. The "O" stands for the Organisation's capability to support and deliver the "Valuable", "Rare" and "In-imitable" resource....
     
 
  Challenges of Managing Conglomerates...
I am currently dealing with following question: what are the challenges of managing conglomerates, starting from the resource based view? Any ideas, where to start?...
     
 
  Relevance of RBV to Healthcare SMEs
What could one describe as core competences of a small business engaged in caring and looking after patients? How would one apply the RBV model to that business e.g a nursing home or residential care business?...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 企业资源观 高级帐户
  Sources for Resource Based View
In order to find possible / potential sources for the resource based view, I recommend you look into the company's:
(1) Tangible and intangible assets (maybe financial position, or company software, or or a customer need database is so st...
     
 
  RBV & Financial Capability
The Chinese security regulation commission regulates the access to equity and bond. Only firms which meet the qualifications are eligible to obtain access to external finance.
Do you think a firms' ability to access equity or bond can be an
     
 
  Advantages of RBV (benefits)
The resource based view of the firm is a terrific tool for analyzing the presence, or lack thereof, of wealth-creating mechanisms within a given company.
When one combines results from those analyses with a company's existing incentive...
     
 
  Limitations of Resource Based View of the Firm
What are the limitations of RBV? Can anyone clearly explain it? Thanks....
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Resource Based View of the Firm 高级帐户
 

How to Measure Resource Based View of the Firm

Does anyone have an idea of how to measure the existence of RBV in an organization?
At least to my knowledge, there isn't any quantified way of m...
Usage (application)Measuring the Existence of RBV in an Organization
 
 
 

How to Avoid Imitation?

How can barriers to imitation be created?
How can we make a competitive advantage into a sustainable one?
Here's a list of factors that ...
Usage (application)Protection of your Strategic Resources Against Imitation
 
 
 

Three Schools of Thought for Firm-internal Factors for Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Three schools of thought have now been identified as those focused on firm-internal factors (resources and capabilities) in the achievement of a susta...
Usage (application)Achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantage
 
 
 

Differences Between Resources and Capabilities

These are the main differences between resources and capabilities according to the relevant management literature on the topic:
1. ...
Usage (application)The 4 Main Differences
 
 
 

Key Challenges of Internet Age for Management and for Product and Service Development

The Internet age represents a huge challenge for most businesses. Why?
  1. Because the Internet, wireless devices such as mobile phones in co...
    Usage (application)R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Marketing, Innovation, Visioning
 
 
 

A Corporate Theory: Long-term Handhold and Guidance in Turbulent Times?

According to Professor Todd Zenger, companies should focus less on competitive advantage (this isn't what really interests stock markets). Instead cor...
Usage (application)Inside-out Corporate Strategy, Corporate Visioning
 
 
 

What are Smart Creatives? Traits

To accommodate the strategic demands of the internet age, clever, creative knowledge workers are needed in product/service development, with a lot of ...
Usage (application)R&D, Product Development, Service Development, Strategy, Innovation, HR, Career Management
 
 
 

Distinguish Resources and Capabilites

Scholars Silja Korhoen and Juha S. Niemela argue that distinguishing capabilities from resources and understanding their architecture enables a compan...
Usage (application)Why the Difference Matters
 
 
 

Dynamic Capabilities View

Click on More for an explanation of Dynamic Capabilities, the ability of firms to develop capabilities or competencies to strategically adapt to exter...
Usage (application)VRIN: Strategic Learning
 
 
 

Usages of the Resource Based View

Note that RBV may be used in several distinct dimensions:
1. As a valuation tool - it may be very useful tool to compare values of firms.<...
Usage (application)Application Areas of RBV
 
 

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比较: Core Competence[核心竞争力]  |  Delta Model[金三角模型]  |  Parenting Advantage[母合优势]  |  Strategy Dynamics[战略动力学]  |  SWOT Analysis[SWOT分析]  |  Prahalad  |  Porter Five Forces[五力模式]  |  Distinctive Capabilities[特殊能力]  |  3C's  |  Bricks and Clicks[砖块加鼠标]  |  Twelve Principles of the Network Economy[网络经济12法则]  |  Blue Ocean Strategy[蓝海战略]  |  Product/Market Grid[产品市场方格]  |  Three Dimensional Business Definition[三维商业定义]


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