计划行为理论

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改变人的行为模式。 Icek Ajzen的Theory of Planned Behavior[TPB,计划行为理论]解析。 (‘85)

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Icek Ajzen(1985,1991)提出的计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior,TPB)能够帮助我们理解人是如何改变自己的行为模式的。 TPB认为人的行为是经过深思熟虑的计划的结果。


TPB是AjzenFishbein(1975,1980)共同提出的理性行为理论(Theory of Reasoned ActionTRA的继承者, 因为Ajzen研究发现,人的行为并不是百分百地出于自愿,而是处在控制之下, 因此,他將TRA予以擴充,增加了一项对自我“行为控制认知”(Perceived Behavior Control)的新概念, 从而发展成为新的行为理论研究模式——计划行为理论(Theory of Planned Behavior, TPB)。


计划行为理论的三项考量

根据TPB,人的行为模式受到三项内在因素影响:

  1. 个人行为态度(Behaviroal Beliefs。 个人对自己行为可能出现的结果的一种看法和观点。

  2. 主观性规范(Normative Beliefs。 对他人的标准化行为模式的主观性感知。

  3. 行为控制认知(Control Beliefs。 对于促进或阻碍行为效果的相关因素的认知。

Ajzen Theory of Planned Behavior[计划行为理论] TPB当人们身处具体的工作环境或项目计划中,需要对行为做出改变时,以上三个方面的考量至关重要。


在三个考量的各自范畴内,行为态度的考量会使人产生对待行为的正面的或负面的态度,行为规范性的考量会使人感受到周遭的社会压力,行为控制因素的考量则会导致人的实际行为控制度的上升。 此三项因素的综合则构成了人的行为意向(Behavioral Intention)。 作为一般性的法则,如果个人行为态度和主观性规范是正向的、积极的,那么个人对该行为认定的实际控制就会愈多,采取该行为的意向将愈强。


过去行为的余效影响

2002年,Ajzen对过去行为对后继行为的余效影响(Residual Effects)进行了调查研究。 他得出结论:余效影响确实存在,但不能够由此得出习惯化行为(Habituation)的结论,如许多其他学者认为的那样。 有证据显示,当行为意向与具体行为和谐一致的时候,余效影响是微弱的。 而且,当行为意向非常强壮、个人预想现实可靠的时候,且已制定了执行行为意向的具体方案,余效影响将会消失。


旅游行业的一个研究项目证明,过去的旅行经验对未来旅游活动的影响,只发生于外部环境保持相对稳定的时候。


运用: TPB帮助解释为什么充斥大量信息的广告战不灵验, 如此的广告宣传只能够提高消费者关于产品的知识,却无助于大幅度改变消费者行为。 只有那些致力于改变消费者态度和对对标准的感知,以及控制消费者购买行为变化的广告,才会产生较好的广告效果。


同样,在管理方面,那些将重点放在解释某某重要性上的项目(意在知识转变)也不可能取得成功, 相反,应该关注于员工的行为态度、主观性标准以及行为控制认知,使员工产生内在的变革意向。


参考书: Icek Ajzen, Martin Fishbein - Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior -


计划行为理论论坛
  How Customer Attitudes are Created
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  The Role of Irrationality (Affect and Emotions) in Planned Behavior
A frequently mentioned argument against the TPB is that the theory does not take into account sufficiently enough the cognitive and affective processes that often result in biased human evaluations and behaviour. It is concerned primarily with behavi...
     
 
  Three Components of an Attitude
Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, in their book 'Organizational Behavior' define an attitude as a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation.
According to them, at...
     
 
  How to Apply the Theory of Planned Behavior in Work Safety
Safety in mining is of utmost importance and statistics show that the behaviour of people is part of the causes.
How can I apply the TPB to help change the behaviour from unsafe to safe?...
     
 
  Exceptions to Theory of Planned Behavior
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  'Behaviourist' Management Theory?
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  Three Levels in Theory of Planned Behaviour
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- At the individual level, we may be looking at the...
     
 
  Employee Maturity and Theory of Planned Behavior
If an employee is not mature enough to analyze his/her environment he/she may choose a totally wrong action.
Therefore it will be important to consider the persons maturity to ensure the person will take an action that benefits the organization...
     
 
  Theory of Planned Behavior and Maslow
I have read some of the remarks here and am now wondering how TPB relates to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Any ideas on this?...
     
 
  How to Apply TPB Theory in Marketing?
I'm not familiar with the theory here, but am wondering how its principles apply to marketing in the case where you are at a competitive disadvantage, and want to change your customer's behavior so that they consider you.
I get the point that g...
     
 
  Bahaviour is Natural
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  How to Deal with Obstacles to Change?
Some of the biggest obstacles to change initiatives are fear of the unknown and safety in the known. Knowledge per se may not be enough to overcome the fear and propel one towards behaviour change. Conditions that make the status quo unbearable
     
 
  Planned Group Behaviour?
I wonder how dealing with group behaviour is different from individual change behaviour?
There is an 'energy' in groups which is capable of captivating an individual and bringing that individual into the group ethos, which the individual ...
     
 
  Is Planned Behavior Theory Still Valid?
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  Are you Planning your Behavior?
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  Sometimes we are Acting like Monkeys
Sometimes we find ourselves acting very similar to a monkey. We hold on to what we believe is our prize, our goal, our direction, and we won't let go for anything. No matter what changes might be going on around us, no matter what other ides o...
     
 
  De-composed Theory of Planned Behavior
I heard that there exist an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the literature. The name is De-composed TPB. I really want to know the de-composed TPB in details, the limitations and the strengths. I would be obl...
     
 

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最佳实践 - 计划行为理论 高级帐户
  POSITIVE Change Motivators
Attempting to change behavior based solely on information will not work. Many doctors try and fail to get their patients to make life-style changes (heart attack as example) solely on the facts and probability of death.
The unmotivated pa...
     
 

Expert Tips (ENG) - Theory of Planned Behavior 高级帐户
 

Changing Habits / Attitudes of People

In their article Thats the Way We (Used to) Do Things Around Here (strategy+business, Spring 2011, Issue 62), Jeffrey Schwartz, Pablo Gaito and Dou...
Usage (application)Reframing Behavior
 
 
 

Katz Functionalist Theory of Attitudes

Obtaining insights into attitudes of customers is important for organizations, because attitudes influence customer behavior. An important theory on (...
Usage (application)Consumer Attitudes, Customer Attitudes, Buying Behavior, Advertising
 
 
 

Ineffective Behavior

There are many different forms or manifestations of ineffective behavior, such as
- Finding it difficult to say 'no'.
- Being a perfectionis...
Usage (application)Analyzing Manager, Employee or Self Behavior
 
 
 

The Influence of the Perceived Justice Climate on Employee Behavior

Priesemuth et al. (2013) investigated the effects of group-level perceptions of the justice climate within an organization on employee behavior and th...
Usage (application)Employee Behavior, Theory of Planned Behavior, Behavioral Beliefs, Normative Beliefs
 
 
 

4 Patterns of Behavior

According to Ajzen, behavior is based on the way people consider and react to 3 beliefs. Implicitely Ajzen seems to assume that people make rational d...
Usage (application)Behavior is not only based on Reasoning and Beliefs
 
 

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