Theory of Planned Behavior

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Changing the behavior of people. Explanation of Theory of Planned Behavior by Icek Ajzen. ('85)

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The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) of Icek Ajzen (1985, 1991) helps to understand how we can change the behavior of people. The TPB is a theory which predicts deliberate behavior, because behavior can be planned.


TPB is the successor of the similar Theory of Reasoned Action of Ajzen and Fishbein (1975, 1980). The succession was the result of the discovery that behavior appeared to be not 100% voluntary and under control. This resulted in the addition of perceived behavioral control. With this addition the theory was called the Theory of Planned Behavior.


The three considerations of the Theory of Planned Behavior

In short, according to TPB, human action is guided by three kinds of considerations:

  1. Behavioral Beliefs. These are beliefs about the likely consequences of the behavior.

  2. Normative Beliefs. These are beliefs about the normative expectations of others.

  3. Control Beliefs. These are beliefs about the presence of factors that may facilitate, or may impede, the performance of the behavior.

Ajzen Theory of Planned Behavior TPBThe three considerations of Ajzen are crucial in circumstances / projects / programs when the behavior of people needs to be changed.


In their respective aggregates, behavioral beliefs produce a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the behavior, normative beliefs result in perceived social pressure or subjective norm, and control beliefs give rise to perceived behavioral control. In combination, the attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perception of behavioral control, lead to the formation of a behavioral intention. As a general rule, if the attitude and subjective norm are more favorable, the perceived control will be greater, and the person's intention to perform the behavior in question should be stronger.


Residual Effects of Past on Later Behavior

Recently (2002), Ajzen investigated residual effects of past on later behavior. He came to the conclusion that this factor indeed exists, but cannot be described to habituation, such as many people are thinking. A review of existing evidence suggests that the residual impact of past behavior is attenuated, when measures of intention and behavior are compatible. And the impact vanishes when intentions are strong and well formed, expectations are realistic, and specific plans for intention implementation have been developed.


A research project in the travel industry resulted in the conclusion that past travel choice only contributes to the prediction of later behavior if circumstances remain relatively stable.


Example: The Theory of Planned Behavior of Ajzen can help to explain why advertising campaigns merely providing information do not work. To only increase the knowledge does not help to change the behavior very much. Campaigns that aim at attitudes, perceived norms, and control in making the change or buying certain goods, have better results.


Similarly in management, programs that focus only on explanation of the importance of something (knowledge transfer) will likely not succeed. Rather one should convince people to change their intention to change, by giving a lot of attention to attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control.


Book: Icek Ajzen, Martin Fishbein - Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior -




Theory of Planned Behavior Forum (24 topics) Help
  The Effects of Isolated Island Cultures on Change
I am a temporary resident in the South Atlantic researching Change Management in isolated cultures - anyone have any examples?
I've struggled with literature review and have been unable to find previous research. Thanks for your help....
     
  Your Success is Primarily Dependent on the Rationality of your Beliefs
Your response or reaction to any situation is governed by your thoughts, which, in turn, are governed by your belief system. Thus, your resulting action is an indirect consequence of your beliefs.
If you want a positive result, your belief syste...
     
  The Role of Irrationality (Affect and Emotions) in Planned Behavior
A frequently mentioned argument against the TPB is that the theory does not take into account sufficiently enough the cognitive and affective processes that often result in biased human evaluations and behaviour. It is concerned primarily with behavi...
     
  Three Components of an Attitude
Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge, in their book 'Organizational Behavior' define an attitude as a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation.
According to them, at...
     
  How to Apply the Theory of Planned Behavior in Work Safety
Safety in mining is of utmost importance and statistics show that the behaviour of people is part of the causes.
How can I apply the TPB to help change the behaviour from unsafe to safe?...
     
  Exceptions to Theory of Planned Behavior
Is there any known research about the exceptions of the Theory of Planned Behavior? Thanks for your tips......
     
  'Behaviourist' Management Theory?
What is meant by: 'Behaviourist Management Theory'? I will appreciate any information on this question. ...
     
  Three Levels in Theory of Planned Behaviour
The theory provides a framework for implementing change wherein 3 clear tiers (individual, group and organizational) can be identified and managed in order to achieve the desired change.
- At the individual level, we may be looking at the...
     
  Employee Maturity and Theory of Planned Behavior
If an employee is not mature enough to analyze his/her environment he/she may choose a totally wrong action.
Therefore it will be important to consider the person´s maturity to ensure the person will take an action that benefits the organization...
     
  Theory of Planned Behavior and Maslow
I have read some of the remarks here and am now wondering how TPB relates to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Any ideas on this?...
     
  How to Apply TPB Theory in Marketing?
I'm not familiar with the theory here, but am wondering how its principles apply to marketing in the case where you are at a competitive disadvantage, and want to change your customer's behavior so that they consider you.
I get the point that g...
     
  Bahaviour is Natural
It is correct to assert that behaviour is "natural" inborn. The true behaviour only comes to light when there is a catalyst(s) like: oppression, lack, and character influence....
     
  How to Deal with Obstacles to Change?
Some of the biggest obstacles to change initiatives are fear of the unknown and safety in the known. Knowledge per se may not be enough to overcome the fear and propel one towards behaviour change. Conditions that make the status quo unbearable
     
  Planned Group Behaviour?
I wonder how dealing with group behaviour is different from individual change behaviour?
There is an 'energy' in groups which is capable of captivating an individual and bringing that individual into the group ethos, which the individual ...
     
  Is Planned Behavior Theory Still Valid?
I´m not sure about how much are important different behavioral theories in the present world in which all behavior concepts are changing dramatically, due to the special freedom given by modern media, such as fast communications by internet, s...
     
  Are you Planning your Behavior?
How many of us are having the opportunity to plan our behaviour, or time for it?...
     
  POSITIVE Change Motivators
Attempting to change behavior based solely on information will not work. Many doctors try and fail to get their patients to make life-style changes (heart attack as example) solely on the facts and probability of death.
The unmotivated pa...
     
  Sometimes we are Acting like Monkeys
Sometimes we find ourselves acting very similar to a monkey. We hold on to what we believe is our prize, our goal, our direction, and we won't let go for anything. No matter what changes might be going on around us, no matter what other ides o...
     
  De-composed Theory of Planned Behavior
I heard that there exist an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in the literature. The name is De-composed TPB. I really want to know the de-composed TPB in details, the limitations and the strengths. I would be obl...
     
  Other Notable Behaviour
I think it should also be noted that adaptability or even power could be considered to be types of behaviour.
Does anyone know much about change agent behaviour, I know it varies quite a lot of that of the employee....
     



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Resources - Theory of Planned Behavior Premium
Attitude, Motivation and Persuasion - Persuasion Theory, Managing Behavior
Introduction to the Theory of Planned Behaviour - Understanding the Roles our Beliefs are Playing in our Behavior
The Importance of Adapting to Change - Change Management, Need to Change, Change Management
Theory of Planned Behavior Diagram - Human Behavior
 

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Compare with: Change Phases  |  Six Change Approaches  |  Appreciative Inquiry  |  Positive Deviance  |  Change Model Beckhard  |  Force Field Analysis  |  Bases of Social Power  |  Core Group Theory  |  Business Process Reengineering  |  Kaizen  |  Change Management  |  Managing for Value  |  Levels of Culture  |  Changing Organization Cultures  |  Framing  |  Attribution Theory  |  Culture Types


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