Jaap de Jonge, Editor, Netherlands A consequence that should not be overlooked of the formula M = V * E * I is that even if only one of the 3 elements is zero, the resulting Motivation force will also be zero!
So if your employee either does not care about obtaining a raise at all (Valence=0) OR believes his hard work will not result in a better performance (Expectancy=0) OR thinks it is very unlikely that the organization will ever appreciate and reward his performance (Instrumentality=0), in any of these 3 cases his motivation force will be zero.
Vroom Theory of Motivation Mark, USA I agree with Editor's observation. The fact that any one element can be zero will result in a Motivational Force of zero. Regardless of choice, motivation, or behavior, management will be unable to align expectations and confidence levels (expectancy), management will be unable to move in a direction of emotional orientation (valence), and/or satisfy individual perceptions surrounding the organization (instrumentality).
Vroom Theory of Motivation Dan, USA Excellent observation, Editor! Thank you for pointing out the significance of ensuring all elements of the theory must have a positive natural value in order to achieve their desired effectiveness! After reading your comment it struck me how the desired results can be lost due to the most basic principles. Once again, thank you!
Calculating Motivation Inna Borodina, Russian Federation To make a forecast:
Value area motivation (m): m<0 & m >0.
Legacy positives motivation (m+) and negatives motivation (m-).
Set absolute value valences (v), expectancy (e) and instrumentality (I) disconnected zero. But, can be positive and negative.