Perceptual Process | Factors Involving Perception | Theories About Perception K Balachandran, India 1. The perceptual process involves the following steps :
b. Form Perception
c. Visual Depth Perception
e. Movement Perception and
2. Factors influencing perception are :
a. The Perceiver who is influenced by his attitude, motive, interest, experiences and expectations.
b. The Target which is affected by its novelty, motion, sound, size, proximity and background.
c. The Situation of time, work setting and social setting.
3. Theories and factors that affect person perception are :
a. Attribution theory
b. Shortcuts in judging others
c. Selective perception
e. Stereotyping and
f. Halo effect.
The Perception You have of Yourself Priyanka, India Assuming you want to understand about managing perceptions from other people, the Johari Window is definitely a good start. Objectively, more than any model or theory, you need to do a self analysis:
- I would recommend you do a SWOT analysis, map it with your deliverables, analyze the trends. This will give you a fair idea about your work.
- A Root Cause Analysis can help you further analyze your behavioral strengths and weaknesses. It lets you understand the reasons for your perceptions after which you can find out the best way to manage it.
Finding out your Predominant Perception Style Jon Pratlett, Australia Agree with previous comments regarding the Johari Window and 360 degree feedback. A great start is to complete a DISC Personal Profile which will give you an indication of need motivation, strengths and limitations. We most often get feedback from someone else when they don't approve of or like what we are doing - when our approach (style) is different to theirs. Understanding each style and what motivates people with that predominant style will provide insights for you in terms of managing perceptions. If you would like more detail or to like to complete an on-line profile happy to help.
Finding out your Interpersonal Relationship Orientation Patricia Pitsel, Canada I agree with Jon (from Australia). DISC, or any other instrument that identifies personal preferences in style, are very useful. Another useful instrument is FIRO B - Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (Schultz) which identifies both how we express ourselves and how much we want closeness or intimacy, control, and affection or liking. This is a particularly useful instrument for teams. It can explain why some people may see a team member as "clingy" while others may see that person as simply helpful.
Neuro Linguistic Programming S Luther, England I support all the suggested models. When I learned Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP) I learned more about perceptions my own included, and how to listen in order to learn what is important to people. Thus understand their values, beliefs, which drive their behaviour plus my own drivers.
By learning how to question, I can achieve the same outcome of the disc personal profile in general but not quite so specific. These skills have helped me give constructive feedback on careers, and help in the processes of discipline, appraisal, interviews.
Management's biggest fault is to want to tell people how to behave or what to do. We cannot change others unless they want to, but by using the right words, questions, listening skills, we may achieve the change we want. The more I use NLP, the more my listening, observation, questioning skills have developed. By understanding the other person, rapport can be built, communication productive, less conflict exists, leading to a more successful working environment. Increase in sales and keeping customers.
The Perceptions People Have are Their Own Personal Reality Bill Boynton, USA I am trying to sponsor organizational development from what I call the inside out approach, which starts with the people in the organization, team or what ever.
I have sponsored the idea that yes, there is a letter "i" in the word team.
A team, group, department or what ever are made up of a whole bunch of "i's." that go into their make up.
I am recommending that people sit down maybe with a mirror, look into it and ask themselves what ever questions that address"
The"i" I am.
The "i" I wish I were.
The "i" I am perceived to be.
The "i" I wish I were perceived to be.
The "i" I can be.
The "i" I will be.
Perceptions of others are influenced very strongly by the perceptions of ourselves.
The inside-out approach is intended to address and build better followers.
What is wrong with organizations, institutions, society as a whole is basically at the feet of "followers, which are made up of all the "i's."
Think of it, follower ship/leadership come from the a common bond.
Talk about "change" (wow).
Perception Management Toolkit Robin Lahiri, UK You could try the Life Orientations methodology. A very powerful toolkit to enable you not only to understand how you yourself perceive things and operate, but also how others perceive you. It enables you also to understand others' perceptions and frameworks better, so that you can be more effective in aligning where you are coming from with where they are. Very useful in the context of management and leadership, team building, project management and managing change.
Assistance Requested Ruthann Flowers, USA Thank you for raising this subject. I have an internal client that would like his team to look at illustrations that can be seen differently: old hag/young woman. Where can I find them and any discussion/references about we see the different images?
Illusions: Interesting as a Past-time, as an Energizer for Team Meetings, for Developing Self.. Sujatha Suresh, India @Ruthann Flowers: Contributors for ones' perceptions are:
1. Ones' Senses
2. Ones' Way of perceiving, here I guess Personality types shares a lot of knowledge
3. Cultural context
4. Ones' Communication Pattern throws up different perceptions to others
5. Environment one is exposed to since childhood.
As a Behavioral Trainer & Coach I also see a strong connect between what an individual perceives and the decisions that follow..
The following link is very interesting due to the detail the writer has put in... It's a must-see: link Experiencing illusions through such pics will give a mental suggest to ones' brain that others may perceive differently... Good for personal growth, good for learning "inclusiveness". etc.
Understanding Perceptions of Other People Sushma Sharma, India Many good suggestions like Johari window or @FIRO B. I have found attending a T-Group is a great way to find perception of others and explore it for growth in real time in the here and now. As the data is available in the here and now, hence understanding how much belongs to projections and biases of the past. There is scope and possibility of growth and change as well.
Understand and Manage Perception Other People Have Balkrishna Pattil, India I suggest to start from your own home. At an appropriate moment, ask your wife about her perception of you and other people. I think you will achieve a lot. In this process you are not going to lose anything, as the information you receive will remain confidential and at the same time you will get honest feedback.
Just try it out!
Measurement of Perceived Quality srinivas, India Another area is perceived quality.
Though quality as such cannot be measured, perceived quality can be measured. Maybe one approach for a perceptions management framework is to measure the perceived quality of a dimension (say communication quality of a person). For example the number of blind spots that a person is having as compared to good practices which a person ideally need to have with regard to communication dimension.
Suppose let us say as per today's knowledge 10 ideal requirements need to be there for a person giving a presentation, and as an evaluator you have observed that a person has 8 items present. 2 are the blind spots or items needing improvement.
Then the perceived quality of the person with regards to the communication dimension is 80%.
Adopt the Following 3 Models Mohammed, Jordan Adopt: 8 Habits of Highly Effective People
Habit 1: Be Proactive (initiate)
Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind (outcomes)
Habit 3: Put First Things First (prioritize)
Habit 4: Think Win-Win (integrate)
Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood
Habit 6: Synergize (teamwork)
Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw (upgrade)
The 8th Habit: From Effectiveness to Greatness (inspire others) S. Covey
Adopt: Johary Window as stated before
Adopt: Goleman's Emotional Intelligence
4. Relationships Management
In brief, perceiving people depends on how you you see things... Begin with yourself...
The 3 models above are from different fields... You better consider them all..
Perception Management Feraidoon Bakhtiari, Iran I agree with all suggested solutions mentioned above. What I can add to those referred to depends on your position and where you are standing at:
- If you are a student and looking for resources to support research I also recommend to look up tools and techniques prepared and provided by 12manage. Different self analysis / performance assessment / career planning / roles and responsibility tools, techniques and methods will help a lot.
- Professional leaders, directors and managers need to know more about the the environment they are involved in as well as technical and managerial aspects of the profession they are responsible and authorized to carry out along with a clear and transparent understanding of organization strategic policy orientation.
Understanding Perceptions by Other People Paul Steele, Australia Empathy is the area you need to research. That and Social Intelligence by Karl Albreckt
We base our perception of reality and other people on our mental models we have developed in our formative years, perception occurs at a subconscious level and we are often not even aware of why we may or may 'instinctively' like someone or not
Look to researching the soft intelligences for the hard evidence and how they impact our lives every moment.
Different Drivers Cause Different Perceptions Bill Yetman, USA There are certainly some wonderful sources and resources offered in the previous posts, and I might add a starting point that may help you simplify your research process. Start by not wanting to manage, but understand what drives human behavior. Whether in business or in personal interactions, a relationship is guided by the individuals' desires for:
- Being respected,
- They crave control, rather than being directed,
- They want acceptance, rather than tolerance or being judged,
- They want to be seen as unique, in a blurry world, and
- They aspire to achieving more in their lives, not being limited.
If you position - or prime your message with these 'fibers', your message will be processed in a completely different way.
Yes, you can move from here to examine theories on conscious and unconscious analysis, but this should help you better frame messaging and understand responses.
You Cannot 'Read' Perceptions; Only Behavior! Ken Sylvester, USA Sarah, I would begin with a different question - "Is it reasonable to assume that we can read the perceptions and/or mindsets of other people? I have been in the business/government field for 30+ years, and all I can "read" about others is their observable behavior.
If you find an answer to your question, would you please let me know. I have been in search of that same question since 1977 and finally changed my question.
Perceptions in Strategy Formulation Karl Christensen, Mexico From a strategic point of view, people have perceptions about economic, political, social, technological, ecological and other trends that might affect the future nature and direction of your organization.
Even though executives work together on a day to day basis, they perceive the world and the external environment in very different ways. Such different perceptions are OK. The important point is to discuss and hear other peoples thoughts in order to develop a future strategic profile that is valid, and can be implemented with more probabilities of success, in the short and long rage.
By the way, reaching consensus is not the best way to define your strategy. It is confrontation and rational discussion of hard evidence and analysis of other executives' perceptions that are the inputs for better decision making at the strategic level.
Understanding Perceptions through Dialogue and Inquiry Techniques Conroy Fourie, South Africa Try dialogue techniques, see also the ladder of inference model that gives a nice way to understand how each of us build our own stories about what is out there. Around all of this what I've found effective is inquiry - inquiry about what makes up the stories others are telling themselves and others - and - self-inquiry about how we ourselves make up our stories about events and people around us. Sharing openly in a safe, trusting space around this is a great way to "understand and manage" the perceptions of others.
Understanding Perception David Webster Smith, United Kingdom A good place to start for information in the UK is The Centre for Personal Constructs Psychology. There are some good software packages available to elicit and present perceptual information both for individuals and groups - I don't know the context of your question but Google "Enquire Within" or "Grid Suit" (which I use) or get in touch with me.
Perception of People shadpour, Mehdi If you want to find something about other people, such as how they think, their perception, and their act, I think you better look at the new field of marketing called Neuromarketing.
I am sure you will find it useful.
Understanding Perceptions by Other People According to Senge lindy, Australia Peter Senge provides excellent models for understanding and dealing with perception. He articulates clearly that perception is based on beliefs that require change and specifically, organisational change management strategies. His ladder as well as the open dialogue strategies are excellent if you need to deliver organisational change management training.
Understanding Perceptions With Regard to Delight srinivas, India Perception of delight by yourself and by others depends on the belief system of the people and how strongly it is believed. Also it depends on how well the entities in the system work interdependently.
The hormonious working of people in turn depends on the belief system.
The bondage between the entities of the system is so strong that it enables to restore the integrity of the system by way of other entities leading the way in case there is failure of some of the interrelated entities in the system.
It is something like for a human, sound leading the way in darkness. There are pointers with regard to it in experiential systems.
A Method to Research the Perception of Other People mamadou doumbia, Cote D'ivoire I think this is possible if and only if you have seen lived a long time with these people.
But for a good understanding one shoould do experiences with such a person, because the human being is difficult to understand in its full depth.
First you should learn to understand what (s)he likes and disgusts.
Understanding Perceptions by Other People Dominique SCHWARZ, Switzerland It depends on what kind of perception you need.
If you want perception about your products or services you have many many tools.
But if you need to know how they feel the world around them, what they think about you, or simply really think about whatever, it is necessary to be able to know hearing. Are you able to reflect on his or her emotions and yours? Are you able to reformulate her or his opinion? Are you able to connect to your feelings?
Perceptions, Emotional and Cognitive Aspects Bernadette Njoku, United States In reference to your question about perceptions I suggest that if you choose to direct your attention to emotional aspects, you also shouldn't overlook cognitive aspects of information or memory storage and information/memory retrieval (namely, perceptions). There are many resources in the fields of psychology and consumer behavior where you can find information on both cognitive and emotional memory process -- several models and frameworks.
You might be interested in these researchers, Roger Blackwell, Paul Miniard, and James Engel as a starting point.
Perception around the Work Place David Matwa Nyabwari, Kenya Step one to understand is how you perceive yourself and correct it if wrong so that it does not wrongly influence how you perceive others. Factors influencing perception are:
4. Social status or
4. Position, at the organisation
5. Educational level.
Jung Personality Types Approach to Perception Hendriks John, Belgium Perception is influenced, among other aspects, by your psychological type; you "see" things through your own processing of "data"; and vice versa.
To understand how people can react, for instance in situations of change, it is interesting to know more about Jung based Type approach.
Perception Approaches Ken Sylvester, USA @Jaap de Jonge (Editor): Thank you for your concise overview of perception approaches. It is obvious that you have a wide grasp of this topic. I have spent 42 years working with 32 countries and the Global 5000 companies and governments. As a practitioner and a student I have personally not found the perception models to work in real time with people and systems. This does not discount your review. It simply reveals that I have not been effective at using these models in the world of business and politics. Ken.
Understanding Perceptions is Both Extremely Important and Difficult Jaap de Jonge, Netherlands @Ken Sylvester: Thanks, I share you fascination and frustration with perceptions while realizing that understanding and even managing them is both important and really tough at the same time.
The models summarized and discussed on 12manage are supposed to somewhat help to understand and manage a complex management reality. Even when current models are simplistic and only of limited value, it's better than nothing and managing by groping in the dark...
Understanding Perceptions lindy, Australia Dear Jaap, when I follow through on the membership contribution to the discussion (on perception only), a paper or perhaps even a book or a series of small booklets could be written just on the models conveyed generously by membership sharing ideas and concepts. It is certainly better than groping in the dark.
Others Perceptions Difficult to Gauge KATHRYN STEINER, MBA, USA This is an extremely interesting discussion. There is much to say on this subject...
I have concluded that is virtually impossible to gauge others perceptions, although we can help create a positive perception with our actions and words.
Perceptions may be heavily influenced by background, experience, preconceptions, stereotypes, personal situations governing a persons life, essentially many factors.
I have not read the resources quoted in this discussion, however, I intend to. I have discovered that even if dealing with perceptions is hard, they are essential to successful relationships. Both personally and professionally.
Perceptions, Open Dialogue and Communication lindy, Australia @KATHRYN PAWLEY STEINER: You are right on a number of levels. Understanding other peoples perceptions is extremely difficult and layered with multiple dimensions of complexity. I think some people can 'gauge' it better than others.
A deep understanding of the mindset of other people is required. Furthermore, how to communicate that understanding in a respectful reciprocal way that will be both in line with cultural expectation as well as organisational context. Extremely complicated.
One way, according to Senge (that is why I think he provides good insight), is to develop open dialogue. Most people are busy communicating often overlooking building dialogue. To build open dialogue, there must already be in place understanding of mindset which is powerful but pretty intensive work (imagine a workplace of 100, and understanding each mindset!).
So, the challenge remains. One of my interest, as you mention is stereotyping. It is less intensive, more cost efficient and yet most damaging to stereotype people, it happens.
The Complexity of Understanding Perceptions Ken Sylvester, USA @Lindy: Having retired from 42 years of business to teach at a university, most of the educational professionals with whom I presently work prefer to oversimplify complex inter-dependencies via models and statistics.
I somewhat agree with their point of view, in that simplicity is a good place to begin.
However, my business career has been effective, because I accept complexity as the place to end up when in issues such as problem-solving, decision-making, and leading.
For example - marriage and raising children has helped me understand that one cannot hand out a social styles model to one's spouse or family member in order to resolve family issues. The same has been true in business.
I have concluded that asking questions and then listening has been more valuable than all of the social instruments that I have paid an enormous amount of money to learn, remains my best approach. I look forward to learn from you.
Problems with Perception, Complexity, Models and Understanding other People Ken Sylvester, USA When those with whom we communicate are within eye-to-eye contact, I think that perception is at its best.
However, almost all the corporations with whom I worked were separated via the hierarchy of bureaucracy, geographically distanced around our planet, depersonalized among thousands of employees, and add to the equation technological issues, and the social styles approach to communication is complicated.
I am not against social communication models. I think it is a positive place to begin. However, I am not a psychologist. Models tend to distort reality or oversimplify reality.
I spent a few years working on the middle-east conflict in the 70"s - 80's. Even if I could convince the middle-east leaders to use the social models of communication and understanding - I question whether it would resolve such conflicts.
It is my experience that even perfect understanding does not infer resolve of conflict and disagreement. Ii is also my experience that a solid understanding of others' issues may result in no resolve.
Perceptions and Theories lindy, Australia Hi Ken, first of all, it is a pity that we invest so much in educating ourselves and then find out that
1. We knew much about what we learnt and that
2. What we learnt is not that impressive.
Thank you for somewhat agreeing with my view of being able to trust what you already know. Somehow, all my learnings have contributed to my perceptions on a personal note. But theoretically the topic is still much under the sea. That is why I think a book about perceptions under the sea would be good one.
One thing that is important in this debate is that perceptions and learning about perception is interesting as long as it adds to your already existing insights and understanding of the world and as long as you do not compromise yourself and your own human worth.
Perceptions of You by Others Barney Wade Howard, USA Sometimes it only takes personal observation and instinct.
Do your personal reports perform for you because they respect you, fear you or just because that is what the job is? If the majority of your people come to you openly to discuss things such as how to improve ways of getting work done and often go above their normal routines to assist with other tasks, I would say that they have a general respect for you.
I think if one is observant enough to react impartially, decidedly and confidently, that alone can change perception within yourself to the work environment and thus change the perception others have of you. I am not sure if this is what you were looking for, but that is my two cents.