5 P's Model

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Aligning Purpose, Principles, Processes, People, and Performance. Explanation of the 5 P's Model of Pryor, White and Toombs. (1998)

Contributed by: Dr. Mildred Golden Pryor

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5 P's Model (Pryor, White and Toombs)

What is the 5 P's Model? Description


The 5 P's Model from Dr. Mildred Golden Pryor, J. Chris White, and Dr. Leslie A. Toombs is a Strategic Management Model which requires the alignment of 5 variables to improve organizations and their operations: Purpose, Principles, Processes, People, and Performance.

  • Purpose involves all the elements that constitute the intention of the organization. This includes the organization's mission, vision, goals and objectives, and strategies.
  • Principles are the guiding philosophies, assumptions, or attitudes about how the organization should operate and how it should conduct its business. This variable includes the integrity base, ethics, and core values to which employees are expected to make a commitment when they are hired.
  • Processes are the organizational structures, systems, and procedures that are used to make the products or perform the services that the organization provides, as well as the infrastructure and rules that support these systems and procedures.
  • People are the individuals (and teams of people) who perform work that is consistent with the Principles and Processes of an organization to achieve its Purpose. They are the active components who accomplish work results.
  • Performance encompasses all the metrics, measurements, and expected results that indicate the status of the organization, and are used as criteria for decision making. Performance results are fed back into the strategic management process to provide a means of feedback and control.

For an organization to be efficient and effective, socio-technical organizational theories suggest that all of the 5 variables must be aligned. So that they support and reinforce each other. Incongruence or incompatibility among the variables expends unnecessary time, energy and money. Also it can lead to high levels of frustration, feelings of helplessness, and dissatisfaction for employees. The 5 variables exist in all organizations.


Origin of the 5 P's Model. History

The 5 P's Model was developed by Pryor, Toombs, and White for their book, Strategic Quality Management and for use at their respective places of employment. The originators of the 5 P's Model studied under Dr. W. Edwards Deming, Dr. Joseph Juran, Dr. Peter Senge, and other well known experts.


Usage of the 5 P's Model. Applications

  • Strategic Management.
  • Quality Management.
  • Organizational Assessment.
  • Change Management.

Steps in the 5 P's Model. Process

The following steps are a simplified description. See the Strategic Quality Management book for details.

  1. For PURPOSE:
  2. For PRINCIPLES: use a team to develop core values.
  3. For PROCESSES:
    • List all processes.
    • Document the processes using flowcharts, process maps and/or checklists.
    • List process owners. If owners are not identified, designate process owners who will do the process documentation and improvement.
  4. For PEOPLE:
    • Determine the extent to which people are empowered, teams are in place.
    • What is the level of self direction in teams.
    • What training is needed.
    • Other things that relate to employees.
  5. For PERFORMANCE:
    • Identify what measurements are in place/should be in place
    • Establish key performance indicators (KPI's) and baselines.
    • Set up a metrics system with targets for improvement.
    • Track KPI's over time.

Strengths of the 5 P's Model. Benefits

  • The 5 P's Model can be used at the corporate level and throughout every level of the organization.
  • The 5 P's Model is applicable to all types and sizes of organizations.
  • The 5 P's Model can be applied along with a variety of other leadership and management theories, concepts, and tools.
  • The 5 P's Model is timeless. It will not become "out of date" just because other theories are introduced.

Limitations of the 5 P's Model. Disadvantages

  • People applying the 5 P's Model need to individually or as a team understand not only basic leadership and management concepts, but also strategic management, organizational development, process management, and systems thinking.

Book: Dr. Mildred Golden Pryor, J. Chris White, and Dr. Leslie A. Toombs - Strategic Quality Management, A Strategic Systems Approach to Continuous Improvement -





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Compare with the 5 P's Model: Ashridge Mission Model  |  7-S Framework  |  Baldrige Award  |  Strategic Intent  |  4 P's Model  |  Five Disciplines  |  VMOST


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