Advertising

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What is Advertising? Description of Advertising. Explanation.

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Famous examples of advertising...What is Advertising?

Advertising is any paid form of (non-personal) communication and marketing used to convince or persuade viewers, readers or listeners about the benefits of certain products, services, a company or even ideas.

Typically the aim of advertising is to influence consumption behavior with respect to commercial products or services, but the purpose of advertising may also be educational, political or ideological.

Typically the advertiser has to pay for message placement, except for self-advertising.

Advertising can be Business to Consumer, Business to Business. A special form is Trade Marketing.


How does advertising work?

The acronym AIDA describes the stages of an advertising process: Attention, Interest, Desire and Action.

Advertisers use Positioning trying to create a favorable perception of a product or service, Brand Personality, or Corporate Reputation in the mind of the prospect.


Forms of Advertising

Advertising may take many forms, which depend partly on the use of various channels:

Definitions of Advertising

  •  The non-personal communication of information usually paid for & usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods & services) or ideas by identified sponsor through various media. (Arens, Wei Gold, Arens 2010)
  • Any paid form of non-personal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea from an identified sponsor. (Blech & Blech 1998)
  • Paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. (Wells, Burnett, & Moriaty 1998)
  • The element of the marketing communication mix that is non personal paid for an identified sponsor, & disseminated through channels of mass communication to promote the adoption of goods, services, person or ideas. (Bearden, Ingram, & Laforge 1998)
  • An informative or persuasive message carried by a non personal medium & paid for by an identified sponsor whose organization or product is identified in some way. (Zikmund & D'amico 1999)
  • Impersonal; one way communication about a product or organization that is paid by a marketer. (Lamb, Hair & Mc.Daniel 2000)
  • Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor. (Kotler et al., 2006)

Defining an Advertising Strategy

A key tool used by marketers to define advertising strategies for products is McCarthy's Marketing Mix (1960s), also called the 4 P's: Product, Price, Place and Promotion.

Later, Booms and Bitner defined the Extended version of the Marketing Mix, also called the 7 P's (add: People, Process and Physical Evidence) which is preferable to design campaigns for intangible products and services.

The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the advertising elasticity of demand. This measures the percentage increase in demand divided by the percentage increase in advertising spending (a number of other factors are also involved to correct for external influences).


From mass to segmented to individual marketing

In the past, most advertisements were aimed at the general public. This is changing due to following causes:

  1. Target Marketing: the process of communicating, marketing and selling products or services to groups of consumers with similar characteristics (identified via market segmentation)
  2. Niche Marketing: advertisers increasingly want to reach small but profitable market segments with increasingly custom-made products or services.
  3. Internet Technology: increased ability and efficiency to distinguish, target and fulfill individual customer profiles and needs.

Importance of advertising

  • For the economy: The global spending on advertising is immense which makes it a major economic activity by itself.
  • For the media: Advertising can be (an important component of) a business model, as is valid for TV, radio, newspapers, magazines as well as search engines and web sites. Most media outlets would not be in business without revenue generated through the sale of advertising.
  • For advertisers: For many advertisers advertising is crucial to gain interest for their products and services.
  • For consumers: Advertising can have an informational or even educational value for the consumer.

Advertising Agencies

Designing and managing large advertising campaigns is complex and time-consuming. Multiple specialized skills are needed. While large companies are able to manage certain advertising activities themselves, a lot of advertising activities are also traditionally outsourced to specialized advertising agencies.


Typical roles and responsibilities of professionals of advertising agencies include:

  • Account Manager. Locates, acquires and negotiates with (potential) clients. Develops advertising campaigns with the client and is the interface between the advertising agency and the advertiser.
  • Creative Manager. Generates ideas, designs concepts and creates the final advertisement.
  • Market Researcher. Assesses a client’s market situation, researches and analyses customers and competitors. Tests campaigns with Focus Groups.
  • Technical Specialist. Graphic design, film and audio production, copywriting, web programming.
  • Media Planner. Responsible for placing advertisements in appropriate and most effective advertising media.
Advertising Forum
  Nudity in Advertising and Brand Recall
I am interested in persuasion theory and it's practical application, because I am conducting a research on "Nudity in Advertising and Brand Recall" and I want to use persuasion theory in my theoretical framework to review other related literatures.
     
 
  Different Types of Online Advertising
Since advertising is more and more moving to online advertising, Campbell, Cohen and Ma present a quite useful list of types of online ads. Perhaps it will be helpful for you to gather some new ideas for a new marketing campaign! The li...
     
 
  From Persuasion to Engaging Consumers in 4 Spheres
Most advertising messages as we all know them are typically:
- Transmitted widely (not precisely targeted)
- Intrusive (pervasive, without consent of the receiver)
- Irrelevant (not adapted to the receiver)
- Persuading through ei...
     
 
  How to Target Top Managers?
What are popular advertising sources when one wants to target the top level of management?
There are many method of advertising like print media, electronic media etc, but which one is powerful source of advertising to target top levels of manag...
     
 
  Measuring the Effect of Promotional Marketing
How could one measure the success of promotional marketing, aside from sales figures? (both concretely and not)....
     
 
  Communication Objectives of Advertising
Normally, advertisements have one or more communication goals, which are processes your mind will be going through before purchasing a particular product.
According to Percy and Rosenbaum-Elliott there are 4 communication objectives of advert...
     
 
  From Advertising to Public Relations?
I feel that the effect of advertising is reducing and the impact of recommendations and influences is growing - does that mean that advertising is taking a step back and public relations is taking a leap?...
     
 
  Theory of Economic Information - Definition of Advertizing Elasticity
The percentage increase in demand divided by the percentage increase in advertising spending is NOT a valid definition of advertising elasticity.
Get rid of illusions...
E = (dD/D) / (dZ/Z)
In this formula:E = Elasticity
D = Deman...
     
 
  Event Sponsoring and Small Firms
Allowing big companies to sponsor an event normally minimizes the visibility of the smaller companies, through the large banners and lots of attention, when in fact we need the support of smaller companiess... In percentages, the smaller companies ar...
     
 
  Women in Advertisements
How do media generally project women in advertisements? And what is the social relevance of this?...
     
 
  Measuring the Effectiveness of Advertisements
The effectiveness of advertisement can NOT be determined only by measuring the increase in sale, because there are various other factors that can also be responsible for increase in sale such as sales promotions, personal selling, direct marke...
     
 
  Modern Trends in Advertising
Hi,, what are the modern trends in advertisements? What kind of new methodologies or technologies are being used?...
     
 
  Importance of Funnel
Why is the funnel important for the development of an advertising campaign?...
     
 
  Cultural Differences in Advertising
Which factors are causing the climate for advertising to differ among countries?...
     
 
  Impact of Advertising
How to measure the impact of advertising on buying a product by customers? Is there any proof that a particaular advertisement has increased the sales of any product?...
     
 

Advertising Special Interest Group


Special Interest Group

 

Best Practices - Advertising Premium
  Deception in Advertising
Deception in advertisement is prominently used by advertisers to influence the buying beliefs of customers. In 21st Century, customers have become more argumentative, cause-oriented and intellectual and they have changed their purchasing behavior but...
     
 

Expert Tips - Advertising Premium
 

Do Mobile Ads Work? what Kind of Mobile Ads are Most Effective?

We all know the unexpected advertisements that appear on our smart phone, for example when we're checking when our train will leave. This form of adve...
Usage (application): Effectiveness of Mobile Advertising, Mobile Branding, Smart Phone Advertizing
 
 
 

Use an English Slogan or a Slogan in the Local Language?

According to Horniks, Meurs and De Boer (2010), language can be seen as an instrument for adapting or standardizing advertisements. Then using English...
Usage (application): Advertising, Use of Language in Advertising, Slogans
 
 
 

Childrens' Understanding of Advertizing: Three Stages of Consumer Socialization

The way that people behave and how they make their decisions in the marketplace depends on the processes by which they have obtained skills, knowledge...
Usage (application): Advertizing to Children, Targeting Children, Consumer Socialization, Marketing to Children
 
 
 

New Radical Advertising Methods as a Consequence of Jaded Audiences

The types and ways of Advertising has changed over years. For example, everyone knows that traditional ways of advertising have been replaced by onlin...
Usage (application): Advertising Approaches, Ambient Advertising, Sex in Advertising
 
 
 

Mobile Apps or Mobile Ads?

Apart from calling, e-mail and texting, mobile phone users on average spend 82% of their mobile time on apps and just 18% on browsing.
Mobile app...
Usage (application): Mobile Advertizing, Mobile Branding, Smart Phone Apps
 
 
 

Understanding Why Customers Buy: Katz Functionalist Theory of Attitudes

Obtaining insights into attitudes of customers is important for organizations, because attitudes influence customer behavior. An important theory on (...
Usage (application): Consumer Attitudes, Customer Attitudes, Buying Behavior, Advertising
 
 

Resources - Advertising Premium

Media Selection: Media Characteristics, Types, Advantages and Disadvantages

This presentation elaborates the concept of media, related to consumer behaviour and businesses. The presentation includes the following sections:
...
Usage (application): Mass Media, Media Selection, Channels, Advertising, Media Types, Media Scheduling
 

Main Concepts of Mass Communication Management

Presentation about 3 main concepts of Mass Communication Management: Advertising, Promotion and Public Relations. The following sections are included:...
Usage (application): Mass Communication, Advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations
 

Philip Kotler on Today's Relevance of Mass Advertising

Philip Kotler explains that mass advertising, typically through television and print, has lost most of its its effectiveness for most markets, product...
Usage (application): Mass Advertsing, Mass Media, Advertising Strategy, Consumer Behavior
 

Funny Intro to Marketing Concepts in 2 Minutes

Funny explanation of direct marketing, advertising, telemarketing, public relations, brand recognition, customer feedback, demand and supply gap, comp...
Usage (application): Initial Understanding of Marketing Terms, Marketing Intro, Marketing Fun, Trainings, Workshops
 

Overview of Advertising: Concept, SWOT, Major Techniques

A presentation about the concept of Advertising. The presentation starts with describing what Advertising . After that the strength, weaknesses, oppor...
Usage (application): Definition of Advertising, SWOT Analysis of Advertising, Seven Major Techniques
 
 

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Compare also: Product Life Cycle  |  Target Marketing  |  Positioning  |  Co-Marketing  |  Cross-Branding  |  Synchromarketing  |  Tie-in Marketing  |  Subliminal Advertizing  |  Ambient Advertising

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